Ingenieur Vol. 75 ingenieur July 2018-FA - Page 53

energy mix in terms of fossil-fuels for electricity production, ushering in an era of localised micro- grids of electricity/energy independence with drastically reduced emission levels. Consumers and many businesses stand to benefit greatly from advances in battery energy storage technologies, whether they are used to power mobile internet devices, vehicles or entire households. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Based on an expected doubling of lithium-ion battery capacity in the next decade, electric- powered vehicles (EVs) are expected to become cost competitive with petrol-engine vehicles by 2025 on a total cost of ownership basis [Ref. 5]. Car manufacturers are investing heavily in developing both hybrid and pure electric models to help meet tightening emissions standards. Towns and cities want to impose restrictions on conventional cars to reduce pollution; and in the long term, some European countries, including the UK and France, want to ban them altogether by 2040. In July 2017, the UK Government announced that it would ban the sale of new petrol and diesel cars and vans from 2040 onwards in order to cut carbon emissions by 80% by 2050 from the 1990 levels in tandem with phasing out remaining coal- fired power plants by 2025. According to expert estimates, the numbers of EVs could balloon to 20 million by 2040 from around 90,000 today, although some conventional cars will remain on the road. Thus, charging them all will require additional electricity from the UK power grid and would add around 5% to the annual energy demand. This is where “smart charging” will be deployed. Smart charging facilities/sys FV2vrUg0FG&rvW"g&FRw&BǒvVB2&VFǐf&RfFrVW&G2vRV7W&pFBFW&RgVǒ6&vVBvVFV"vW'0VVBFVVV7G&6GWFƗG6W2vffW FffW&VBF&fg2BFffW&VBFW2bFFRЦbW6RFRF&fb6FBBv&Rv'FvPf6ǒF7V'67&&RF6'B6&vr2@6VB&RW6VgVFf"vrFVBvVUg2&R&VBf"W'2BFRVFW"BP"BFRv&6RखƖ6F0R"W&FRf"UbFF6VG&W26VFr6FRVFVrFW&0FRVVBFFWfVFWVFRg&7G'V7GW&RFRf&b&V6&vr7FF2F26FWBvfW&VG2FVW6WFVB6"W'2@VV7G&6GWFƗFW26VB&R&&ǒ&W76&Pf"'VFrUb6&vrg&7G'V7GW&R&FW"Ff6ƗFFRVV7G&2B'&BfV6RFFF06&R&VƗ6VBF&VvVffV7FfR6VFfR&6V@&VwVF266FW&rFR7Bb&WFWG&gVV&6rgWGW&RFFbUg2B6&VgVǐvVvrFRG&FRfg2vr7FWgW'FW"FR6'B6&vp77FV6&RgW'FW"FWfVVBB6fwW&V@FFVƗfW"VV7G&6GFFRw&BfV6RFw&@"c$r77FVv627W'&VFǒ&VrFW7FV@BfWrG&V'2WW&RB6&V6&66ǒUg2&RVffV7BVW&w7F&vRFWf6W2vVV2B&V6W6RFW7VBV6bFV"FR&VBWBFpFrFW6V6FWBFRV2@G&Vv2VV7G&6GFVBFRc$r77FVЧW6W26gGv&RF&VwVFRFR6&vrWfV`VFRUg2&VBB6'B6&vrf6ƗGvVFRw&BVVG2WG&vW"B6G&rfW'6VG2g&V6FfGVUbGW&pfbVW&G2FRw&B6&R6&vRFW6PfV6W2vBFW6RUbW6W'2vvWB@f"FRVV7G&6GFW&fFRFRc$r77FVЧFV6w2FRFVFF&RV&VFFVBFR6'Bw&Bg&7G'V7GW&RW7V6ǒBFP֖7&w&BF7G&'WF67VW"VB4%Bu$@6'Bw&B2g&7G'V7GW&R6&6pVV7G&6GvVW&FFVƗfW'G&6֗76bF7G&'WFB67VW"WGv&v66'&FW2f&FB6V6F0FV6wBWFFFV6wF֖֗6PVf&VF7G2V6R&WG2&fR&VƖ&ƗGB6W'f6R&VGV6R67G2@&fRVff6V7B2F26FWBFBFP6'Bw&B266FW&VBF7'WFfRBVvW'07W7FW'2FVvvRF&V7FǒvFW&F'2@7FVFW'276WBvW'2VV7G&6G&WG0VFrF&R7W7F&RVV7G&6G7WǐGW7G'Bw&VVW"V6גS