Ingenieur Vol. 75 ingenieur July 2018-FA - Page 24

INGENIEUR Application in Grid-Connected Systems Table 2: Efficiency of commercial PV modules in 2017 (Source what-are-the-most-efficient-solar-panels-on-the- market/) A grid-connected photovoltaic (GCPV) system comprises two main components: (a) a PV array; and (b) Balance of System (BOS) components. The BOS components are needed to make the system work and comply with requirements with regards to connection to and disconnection from the grid. The topology may be arranged as shown in Figure 6. In Malaysia, there are already nearly 30 Malaysian Standards (MS) relating to GCPV systems. The main standards are: • MS1837:2018 Installation of grid- connected photovoltaic (PV) system (Second revision) • MS IEC 61724:2010 Photovoltaic System Performance Monitoring – Guidelines for Measurement, Data Exchange And Analysis Some key performance issues relating to GCPV systems that are of major interest include: • Final yield (h d -1 ); Specific yield (h d -1 ); Reference yield (h d -1 ); Performance ratio (%) • Overall plant efficiency (%); Availability (%); Capacity factor (%); Penetration level (%) Figure 6: Major topologies of GCPV systems (Source: handle/10012/4943/Omran_Walid.pdf?sequence=1) 6 22 VOL VOL 75 55 JULY-SEPTEMBER JUNE 2013 2018