Ingenieur Vol. 75 ingenieur July 2018-FA - Page 14

INGENIEUR Distributed Generation – Shaping Future Energy By Dato’ Ir. Dr Ali Askar Sher Mohamad Managing Director, Sher Engineering & Consultancy Sdn Bhd Figure 1: Typical Transmission Lines T he electricity industry has been characterized by central generation, long transmission lines, and an extended distribution network, bringing power to the consumer, whether residential, commercial, or industrial. Since generation is traditionally powered by coal, gas, nuclear or large hydro, these generating plants are located far away from population centres. In an effort to reduce losses in the lines, the Transmission voltages continue to increase, from 66 kV through 132, 275 and now 500 kV in Malaysia. Other countries have gone for 750 kV and even 1000 kV. While increased power capacity can be transmitted over long d ₯ΝΡ…Ή•Μέ₯Ρ ±½έ•Θ)±½ΝΝ•Μ°Ρ‘”½ΝЁ½˜•Ι•Ρ₯Ήœ…Ή΅…₯ΉΡ…₯Ή₯Ήœ)Ρ‘•Ν”±₯Ή•Μ₯́•Ή½Ι΅½Ύ…Ή₯́Α…ΝΝ•½ΈΡΌΡ‘”(Ψ(ΔΘ)Y=0)Y=0€άΤ(Τԁ)U1d΅MAQ5 H))U9€ΘΐΔΜ€ΘΐΔΰ)½ΉΝΥ΅•Ίёɽ՝ Ρ‘”Ρ…Ι₯™˜ΈQ‘”‘₯ΝΡΙ₯‰ΥΡ₯½Έ)Ή•Ρέ½Ι¬°½΅ΑΙ₯Ν₯Ήœ½˜±½Ήœ±•ΉΡ‘́½˜΅•‘₯Υ΄)Ω½±Ρ…”€‘ΡεΑ₯…±±δ€ΔΔ°€Θȁ…Ή€Μ́­X€…Ή±½ά)Ω½±Ρ…”€‘ΡεΑ₯…±±δ€ΠΐΐX…Ή€ΘΜΐX€…±ΝΌΡ…­•Μ„)‘՝”‘ΥΉ¬½˜Ρ‘”ΥΡ₯±₯ΡηŠé‰Υ‘•ΠΡΌ½Α•Ι…Ρ”…Ή)΅…₯ΉΡ…₯ΈΈ)I9] 19Id%9UMQId)I•Ή•έ…‰±•Μ‘…Ω”‰•½΅”„Α½ΑΥ±…ȁͽΥɍ”½˜)Α½έ•Θ•Ή•Ι…Ρ₯½Έ₯ΈΡ‘”Α…ΝЁ‘•…‘”½ΘΝΌ°Ή½Π)½Ή±δ₯ΈΡ‘”‘•Ω•±½Α•]•ΝΠ°‰ΥЁ…±ΝΌ₯Έ΅…Ήδ)‘•Ω•±½Α•…Ή‘•Ω•±½Α₯Ήœ•½Ή½΅₯•Μ₯ΈΝ₯„°)₯Ή±Υ‘₯Ήœ ‘₯Ή„°%Ή‘₯„°)…Α…Έ°…ΉΡ‘”M8)Ι•₯½ΈΈQ‘”Ω…ΝЁ΅…©½Ι₯Ρ䁽˜I•Ή•έ…‰±”Ή•Ι