Ingenieur Vol. 74 Ingenieur Vol 72, April-June 2018 - Page 81

Rules of the Sea Shipping has been used to transport goods since ancient times. Today, over 50,000 merchant ships trade internationally, transporting every kind of cargo. Without them, we simply could not have the level of import and export of affordable goods that make up our modern economy and lifestyle. The Intern ][ۘ[X\][YHܙ[\][ۈ SSH\œ\ۜXH܈Y[][[\][ۘ[\[[Y[[Z][[Z\[ۜ[YX[B[\XۈHX\[H[\ۛY[ HT˜[Z]YHۈ\[X\[HXH T• H[\]\[H]HSS[\B]][\\X[۝X]H›YY][SS&\Y[][ۜ˂ԓS•[ܝ\HܝXX[]\وXۛZX[X[][Y[ [[ܝ[]Y\܈H܂[[X[XۛZY\H[ܙH\]]]K[ܝ[\X\HۛX[H؜YX][ۋ[X[\X\][X\B\Hو[\X\\[Hܛ˜[[[H[\X[[\]BHۛYH[][ۜ]\ۙB\Hܛ \[Y܈^[\K[[][X]\[X]Y[Y[HX\[\ \[]Y\K\&H[Y[[ [[ܙX\H[]\YH\Y\&B[YHHۛX[[HX\]˂HX܈\ܝXX[YX[ݙ\K[\]K[XY][p\Z[XB][Y[[\[ܝ\]HX\قܚ]X[][Y[[[\΂8[X]H[N[ܝX[܂X] Hوؘ[[ۜ[\[ۋHو[[\H\K[ HوBܛ8&\[\K\[]Y [Z\[ۜ˂][ܚ\][ۈ]\ۈH\KB[\ۛY[[[\XوHX܈\™^XYܛ[X]X[K8”\Y\[\][ۈ[[ܚ\][ێ]Y\[HYHYH K[[ۂ\Y[H L \]Z][[]\›وHڙXYؘ[[][ۋB[X\وZX\ۈHY[XBXX[[ۈH L 8¸8¸8X\X[]H[YܙX[]N[\[X]YۙH[[ۈ[H[Z[YB[Y\[XX\[[ ]X]\Y [X[H]Y\[YHۙ\[ۂ\\\]KY[ؚ[]H]H\XH[YHوH܈›ٝ[X[XXH[YܙXHXX[ܝ][ۋYY]N[ܙH[ KHZ[[ۈ[B\H[Y[\ LZ[[ۈ\H[\YۈHܛ8&\Y]\HYX\[ZYH[YH[Y\X[܈L BوHX][Y^Hۈ\[قHܛ8&\[܈ZX\˂Z\][ێ][ۈH[ܚ\YY[ܝ\Y[\X]Y]BYH[HوX[ۙ][ۜ[Y[˜\[ݘ\[\[[[ۘ\H\X\\˂XXYX\[[ N K X][H\XH]X]Y][ۈBZX\˂SQUTS H[HY[”[Y][\[YX[]\XX[] [ܙHܙY[XH[\ۙ\[ۋ][›[ܙH\[][ܙX]\[\]X[]K] ][\^HXۛYHHZ\K\YHXH؛[\ˈ^H\]؛\[[\YHܙX]\\[][][[[܈XX[] Y[[H]YH]Y[H]\[]K[˂[]\\\۸&]H\X[[[X[B][\ݙ\Y YX[[[]\Z^ق؛[[X[\[Y^\˂X\\XX[ܝ][ۂYH\[[\[\[ۈ[Yܘ][˜]]ۛ[\\]^\[XX[] XZ[HH\[H[ܙH^XH[\ۜ]KHZ[H\[XH\ۋX[؛^\›X\YY]X\ۙH\]]\\œ[H[YXY[]\Xܛۋ܂[[KH[]]\ZYXH\[YH]H]ZX\]\Z[H[[ZBHZ[][ۋY[܈ Z[]\[[[\[\]H؛^H܈H[[Z[\H\[][ۋ