Ingenieur Vol. 74 Ingenieur Vol 72, April-June 2018 - Page 31

for both driving and riding, especially in Malaysia where motorcycles weave in and out of traffic with scary precision. However, when an untimely event such as a car changing lane without signalling happens, and the inexperienced rider fails to control his motorcycle while assessing the traffic environment around him, that may also lead to an accident. In order to train these inexperienced young motorcyclists, perhaps the duration of the probationary period should be reviewed to ensure that they receive a fair amount of practice on the roads before earning their full license. Another obvious reason which explains the high rate of young motorcyclists in road accidents can be seen through their risk-taking behaviour while on the roads (Begg and Langley, 2000). Unlicensed riding, riding without wearing a helmet, riding while texting, racing on the roads at night, performing dangerous stunts while riding are just a few examples. Youths have a tendency to overestimate their own abilities, which, coupled with a high level of self-confidence and an urge to explore the feelings of elation make them underestimate risks and dangers and disregard their own safety and the safety of other road users (Arnett, 1992). To reduce the occurrence of risk- taking behaviour among young motorcyclists, everyone including traffic enforcers, parents, families, schools and friends should play a role in instilling positive principles and demonstrating safe riding behaviours. This should start from a young age so that as the child becomes a youth, he will naturally act and behave based on these instilled good practices. This is important as traffic enforcers can help to reduce the risk-taking behaviours only for a certain period of time and to a certain extent. And lastly, for youths, peer pressure is a critical contributor in everything they do, even when riding their motorcycles on the road (Mohd Khairul Alhapiz, Siti Maryam, Nuura Addina & Mohd Faudzi, 2012). For example, the possibility of being ridiculed by their peers for riding just below the speed limit might affect their self-esteem, particularly among the males. In an effort to save face and show their “manliness”, they might ride above the legal speed limit or perform other risky acts to earn so-called respect in the eyes of their peers. Parents/guardians play a vital role in this aspect as it is their responsibility to to shape their offspring’s values and behaviour. The factors listed above are only a few which contribute toward the high involvement of young motorcyclists in road crashes. It is important to understand these underlying factors, for only then will it be possible to plan specific strategies, targeted campaigns and approaches which may help to reduce the rate of young motorcyclists 29