Indiana Reading Journal Volume 44 Issue 1 - Page 37

CCAS-R 4. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.

CCAS-R 5. Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.

CCAS-R 9. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.

CCAS-W 9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

Evaluate-- making judgments and defending opinions based on set criteria

CCAS-R 6. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.

CCAS-R 7. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.

CCAS-R 8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.

CCAS-W 8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.


Previous studies in reading instruction show that when teachers emphasize higher order thinking, students demonstrate greater performance growth and engagement when compared to other teachers (Chinn, Anderson, & Waggoner, 2001; Knapp, 1995; Taylor, Pearson, Peterson, & Rodriguez, 2003). Furthermore, purposefully teaching for HOTS has been found to enhance students’ critical thinking skills (Miri, David, & Uri, 2007). The Common Core Anchor Standards (National Governors Association Center for Best Practices [NGA Center] & The Council of Chief State School Officers [CCSSO], 2010b) for reading and writing share literacy expectations necessary for preparing students for college and career readiness. These standards articulate the both core academic knowledge and complex thinking to support 21st Century student outcomes. Anchor standards are both representative of HOTS and include digital literacies to support rigorous instruction (see: Table 1)

Table 1

Common Core Anchor Standards (CCAS) for Reading (R) and Writing (W) that reflect digital literacies and Higher Order Thinking Skills aligned to Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy Levels.

Analyze-- examining relationships, using text evidence to make inferences and support generalizations.

CCAS-R 1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.