ICPI 25th Anniversary Commemorative Publication ICPI 25th Anniv Commemorative Album 0219 web - Page 4

In the Beginning…. Stone Roman roads stretched across their empire about 3,000 miles (4,828 km) longer than the 46,876-mile (75,440 km) U.S. interstate highway system. While stone paving has a five-plus millennium record of successful global use, vitrified clay brick pavers arrived in the 19th century as a less expensive, smoother riding alternative, especially for urban streets. Clay paving was important enough then to receive U.S. federal research funds. One of the first accelerated trafficking studies was conducted on a brick road by the U.S. Bureau of Public Roads in 1926 to examine the feasibility of using 3 in. (75 mm) thick units (or less). Post-World War II—Precedents and Inspiration from Germany and The Netherlands Even prior to World War I, patents were issued in Germany for the manufacture of concrete paving units. They were mostly used as a substitute for stone paving setts. In 1936, the first experimental interlocking concrete pavement road opened in Neuss (near Düsseldorf ), Germany, using 9 1 / 2 x 4 3 / 4 x 3 1 / 8 inch (240 x 120 x 80 mm) thick concrete pavers. This pavement performed well for 20 years and helped gain acceptance of interlocking concrete pavements in Germany. Early paver production in Germany PHOTO COURTESY OF ZENITH EQUIPMENT The early 1950s marked the beginning of high- efficiency, concrete paver manufacturing in Germany including other shapes besides rectangular units. In 1936, production of 100 m 2 sf of pavers required 15-person hours. By 1980, this was reduced to 1.5-person hours. Dentated or shaped paving units began large scale manufacturing in 1956. By 1958, the German Road Construction Research Association issued Technology Transfer Inspired by German and Dutch Precedents 1936 1964 1951 1966 1969 1972 First concrete paver road in Neuss, Germany First German concrete paver product standard Dutch start paver production to replace clay paver roads Dutch start national paver product certification First U.S. concrete paver project in New York City First concrete paver plant, North American Stone Company, starts in Barrie, Ontario 2 • I C P I C O M M E M O R AT I V E P U B L I C AT I O N