IASC 25 years - Page 70

of IPY-II is that instructions for the program of ob- mainly to escort national shipping but also to serve servations were produced in eight languages. as platforms for scientific observations. Attempts 20 were made, with some success, to probe beneath Whereas IPY-I had been restricted to manual obser- the sea ice with submarines. In 1937 Russia es- vations at the surface of the Earth, from stations tablished a scientific station at the North Pole to isolated from one another but following a pre-ar- take oceanographic and weather observations as it