tic grazing systems, including the human, economic Indigenous and local environmental knowledge; So- and social dependencies on them. cial viability and cultural continuity; Political dynamics, governance and collective rights. SULMAR: Sustainable use of living marine resources in the Arctic Year of approval: 1996 Study the sustainable practice of selected resourc- COASP: Cooperative Arctic Seismological Project Year of approval: 1995 es use complexes in the Arctic, with a view to im- This project involves seismological research, includ- proving our understanding between people, animals ing Arctic seismicity studies. It uses the generalized and habitat, bearing in mind that environmental Beam forming method invented by NORSAR for pro- change can affect the interactions cessing Arctic earthquakes. It also involves the systematic use of other data in cooperation with the Environmental and Social Impact of Industrialization Year of approval: 1996 International Seismological Data Center. mental, Economic and Social Impacts of Large Scale ADD: International Arctic Environment Data Directory Year of approval: 1995 Energy Projects in the Arctic (oil, hydro, nuclear). This is an ambitious project engaged in establishing However, this project idea did not develop into an an authoritative and user-friendly directory of envi- implemented project. ronmental data sources covering the Arctic region An international workshop was held on ‘Environ- with several partners. However, after several meet- IBCAO: International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean Year of approval: 1997 ings and tests, IASC decided to withdraw from this The aim of this project is to promote and oversee the development of a coherent database of all avail- Tundra-Taiga Initiative Year of approval: 2000 able bathymetric observations north of the 64 de- The objectives of this project are to understand gree N. past and present change in the tundra/taiga bound- project because of its limited outcomes. ary and to predict future changes at a range of geo- Contaminants and Human Health in the Arctic Year of approval: 1997 graphical scales. This project aims to study the effects of environ- and conservation; ecosystem function and feed- mental contaminants on the health of people living backs to climate and to formalize the output in a in the Arctic with a special emphasis on indigenous GIS framework. It also aims to assess the implications of current and predicted future changes for land use; biodiversity peoples. It is undertaken in cooperation with AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme) and IUCH (International Union for Circumpolar Health) Problems of Indigenous Peoples in the Russian Arctic Year of approval: 1999 This project aims to cover three topics: Land ten- Rapid Cultural and Social Change in the Circumpolar North Year of approval: 1997 The goal of this program was the development of international, comparative, interdisciplinary and co-managed projects on the following themes: 114 00 06 Appendices ure and use of natural resources; Living conditions and quality of life; Abuse of alcohol, with several sub-projects.