BELOW Statue of Hermanubis, a hybrid of Anubis and the Greek god Hermes (Vatican Museums) ANCESTORY ANUBIS AND THE AFTERLIFE The deity associated with mummification and the afterlife usually depicted as a canine or a man with a canine head. Archeologists identified the sacred animal of Anubis as an Egyptian canid, that at the time was called the golden jackal, but recent genetic testing has caused the Egyptian animal to be reclassified as the African golden wolf. Like many ancient Egyptian deities, Anubis assumed different roles in various contexts. Depicted as a protector of graves as early as the First Dynasty (c. 3100 – c. 2890 BC), Anu- 4 bis was also an embalmer. By the Middle Kingdom (c. 2055 – 1650 BC) he was re- placed by Osiris in his role as lord of the underworld. One of his prominent roles was as a god who ushered souls into the afterlife. He attended the weighing scale during the “Weighing of the Heart,” in which it was determined whether a soul would be allowed to enter the realm of the dead. Despite being one of the most ancient and “one of the most frequently depict- ed and mentioned gods” in the Egyptian pantheon, Anubis played almost no role in Egyptian myths. Anubis was depicted in black, a color that symbol- ized both rebirth and the discoloration of the corpse after embalming. Histori- ans assume that the two figures were eventually combined. Anubis’ fe- male counterpart is Anput. His daughter is the serpent goddess Kebechet.