Hooo-Hooo Volume 11 Nr 3 - Page 16

WildLife Group of the SAVA Situation Assessment Several recent papers have looked at the evolution of the 2.3.4.4 clade of H5 viruses and have concluded that migratory birds play an important role not just in the long range dissemination of the viruses but also in terms of their evolution. Continuous genetic mixing of HPAI viruses in wild birds including with LPAI viruses is resulting in increased genetic diversity at whole genome level. Furthermore, the contact between wild birds and poultry in many environments (direct or indirect) leads to virus transmission in both directions, with further opportunity for virus evolution via genetic re-assortment once within poultry, particularly at live bird markets. The rapid evolution of the viruses may manifest in a change in infection kinetics affecting pathogenicity, transmission and host range, an increased affinity for human cells or the evolution of new clades. It highlights the importance of maintaining strong surveillance programmes as well as sharing data on virus sequences and summary disease statistics in a timely manner (He et al., 2017; Takemae et al., 2017). From the European perspective, not only is it clear that H5N8 HPAI has continued to persist in the environment and potentially in indigenous populations of wild birds at local level over the summer in some regions so therefore is likely to continue to cause risk of disease incursions into poultry farms with insufficient biosecurity but it is also clear there are other threats to consider. Wild bird migration season is starting which will bring birds from their breeding grounds in Central and North Eurasia to Europe for wintering. Any extreme cold weather in the coming months will drive those birds inland and further west. Last year, the first cases of H5N8 HPAI were observed in the middle of October to early November. The potential for new ₯ΉΥΙΝ₯½ΉΜΡΌΥΙ½Α”)½˜ Υ8ΰέ₯Ρ Ρ‘•Ν”έ₯±‰₯ɐΑ½ΑΥ±…Ρ₯½ΉΜ…Ι”Ι•…°Έ)Q‘₯́啅ȰΡ‘”…͕́₯Έέ₯±‰₯ɑ́…ΉΑ½Υ±ΡΙ䁅ɔ)…±Ι•…‘䁽ΥΙΙ₯ΉœΈ%Ё₯́…±ΝΌ₯΅Α½ΙΡ…ΉΠΡΌΉ½Ρ”Ρ‘”)Α…ΡΡ•ΙΈ½˜ Υ8ΰ!A$•΅•Ι•Ή”₯Έ€ΘΐΔЁݑ•ΈΡ‘”)Ω₯ΙΎ݅́½‰Ν•ΙΩ•₯Έ)…Α…Έ…ΉM½ΥΡ -½Ι•„₯Έ)έ₯±‰₯ɑ́…Ή„™•ά΅½ΉΡ‘́±…ѕȁ₯Ё݅́‘•Ρ•Ρ•)₯ΈΥΙ½Α”…Ή9½ΙΡ ΅•Ι₯„Έ%˜Ρ‘”Ν…΅”Α…ΡΡ•ΙΈ(ΔΨ)½˜έ₯±‰₯ɐΡΙ…ΉΝ΅₯ΝΝ₯½Έ½ΥΊё₯́啅Ȱέ”΅₯‘Π)•αΑ•ΠΡΌΝ•”•αΑ…ΉΝ₯½Έ₯ΈΡ‘”Ι…Ή”½˜ Υ8؁!A$)Α½Ρ•ΉΡ₯…±±δΡΌΝ₯΅₯±…ȁ…Ι•…Μ°…́₯Ё݅́ɕΑ½ΙΡ•₯Έ‘₯ )ΉΥ΅‰•Ί½˜΅₯Ι…Ρ½Ιδέ₯±‰₯ɑ́₯Έ)…Α…Έ½Ω•ΘΡ‘”)ΝΥ΅΅•ΘΡ½•Ρ‘•Θέ₯Ρ έ…ٕ́½˜₯Ή™•Ρ₯½Έ₯ΈΑ½Υ±ΡΙδ₯Έ)Ρ‘”I•ΑΥ‰±₯Œ½˜-½Ι•„ΈQ‘₯́Ω₯ΙΎ‘…́ͽ΅”…™™₯Ή₯Ρ䁙½Θ)‘Υ΅…Έ•±±ΜΥΉ±₯­” Υ8ΰ!A$Ω₯ΙΥΜ°Ρ‘•Ι•™½Ι”ΑΥ‰±₯Œ)‘•…±Ρ ₯ΝΝՕ́έ₯±°…±ΝΌΉ••ΡΌ‰”½ΉΝ₯‘•Ι•…Ι•™Υ±±δΈ) ½Ή±ΥΝ₯½Έ)Q‘”½Ω•Ι…±°Ι₯Ν¬±•Ω•°™½ΘΡ‘”U,₯́ΝΡ₯±°…ЁΑΙ•Ν•ΉΠ)½ΉΝ₯‘•Ι•ΡΌ‰”ƒŠq1=_Št°έ‘₯ ₯́½ΥȁΉ½Ι΅…°ε•…Θ΄)Ι½ΥΉ‰…­Ι½ΥΉΙ₯Ν¬±•Ω•°°₯Ω•Έ…Ω₯…Έ₯Ή™±Υ•Ήι„)Ω₯ΙΎ͕…Ι”ΥΝΥ…±±δ₯ɍձ…Ρ₯Ήœ…Ё„±½ά±•Ω•°₯Έέ₯±)έ…Ρ•Ι™½έ°ΈQ‘•Ι•™½Ι”°Ρ‘”Ι₯Ν¬™½ΘΑ½Υ±ΡΙ䁅±ΝΌΙ•΅…₯ΉΜ+Šq1=_Št™½Θ₯ΉΡΙ½‘ՍΡ₯½Έ½˜₯Ή™•Ρ₯½Έ½ΉΡΌ₯Ή‘₯Ω₯‘Υ…°)ΑΙ•΅₯Ν•Μ°‰ΥЁέ₯±°‘•Α•Ή½Έ±•Ω•±Μ½˜‰₯½Ν•ΥΙ₯ΡδΈ)Q‘₯́±•Ω•°₯́±₯­•±δΡΌ₯ΉΙ•…Ν”₯ΈΡ‘”Ή•αЁ΅½ΉΡ ½Θ)ΝΌ°…Ή…́₯Ё…Έ…±ΝΌ‰”‘Ι₯Ω•Έ‰δ‘…Ή₯Ήœέ•…Ρ‘•Θ)½Ή‘₯Ρ₯½ΉΜ°έ‘₯ έ”έ₯±°…±ΝΌ‰”΅½Ή₯Ρ½Ι₯Ήœ±½Ν•±δ)₯Έ½±±…‰½Ι…Ρ₯½Έέ₯Ρ Ρ‘”5•Π=™™₯”Έ]”ΝΡΙ½Ή±δ)Ι•½΅΅•ΉΡ‘…Ё…±°Α½Υ±ΡΙ䁭••Α•ΙΜ€‘₯Ή±Υ‘₯Ήœ)‰…­ε…ɐ­••Α•ΙΜ€Ι•Ω₯•άΡ‘•₯ȁ‰₯½Ν•ΥΙ₯Ρ䁡•…ΝΥΙ•Μ)…Ή‰ΥΝ₯Ή•Ν́½ΉΡ₯ΉΥ₯ΡδΑ±…ΉΜΉ½ά°…́ё”Ι₯Ν¬±•Ω•°)΅…δέ•±°₯ΉΙ•…Ν”₯ΈΡ‘”½΅₯Ήœέ••­ΜΈQ‘•δΝ‘½Υ±)™…΅₯±₯…Ι₯Ν”Ρ‘•΅Ν•±Ω•Μέ₯Ρ ½Ω•ΙΉ΅•ΉΠΥ₯‘…Ή”)½Έ½½‰₯½Ν•ΥΙ₯Ρ䁅Ή‘½άΡΌΙ•Α½ΙЁΝΥΝΑ₯₯½Έ½˜)‘₯Ν•…Ν”…ΑΑΙ½ΑΙ₯…Ρ•±δΈ)ΥΙΡ‘•Θ₯Ή™½Ι΅…Ρ₯½Έ₯́…Ω…₯±…‰±”‘•Ι”聑ΡΡΑΜθΌ½έέάΈ)½ΨΉΥ¬½Υ₯‘…Ή”½…Ω₯…Έ΅₯Ή™±Υ•Ήι„΅‰₯ɐ΅™±Τ₯Ή±Υ‘₯Ήœ)ΥΑ‘…Ρ•‰₯½Ν•ΥΙ₯Ρ䁅‘Ω₯”™½ΘΑ½Υ±ΡΙ䁭••Α•Ί™½Θ)Ή±…Ή)I•™•Ι•Ή•Μ)<€ ΘΐΔά€QΙ…ΉΝ‰½ΥΉ‘…ΙδΡ‘Ι•…Ρ́Ѽ™½½…ΉΉΥΡΙ₯Ρ₯½ΈΝ•ΥΙ₯Ρδ)₯ΈM½ΥΡ‘•ΙΈ™Ι₯„Έ‘ΡΡΐθΌ½έέάΉ™…ΌΉ½ΙœΌΜ½„΅€άΨδΕ”ΉΑ‘˜)!”°Έ•Π…°Έ€ ΘΐΔά€%‘•ΉΡ₯™₯…Ρ₯½Έ½˜ΡέΌΉ½Ω•°…Ω₯…Έ₯Έ΄)™±Υ•Ήι„„€‘ Υ8Ψ€Ω₯ΙΎ͕₯Έέ₯±‰₯Ι‘Μ°M‘…Ή‘…€°₯Έ(ΘΐΔΨΈY•Ρ•Ι₯Ή…Ιδ5₯Ι½‰₯½±½δ€Θΐΰθ€ΤΜ΄ΤάΈ)Q…­•΅…”°8Έ•Π…°Έ€ ΘΐΔά€₯Ω”‘₯ΝΡ₯ΉΠΙ•…ΝΝ½ΙΡ…ΉΡ́½˜ Υ8Ψ)‘₯‘±δΑ…Ρ‘½•Ή₯Œ…Ω₯…Έ₯Ή™±Υ•Ήι„Ω₯ΙΎ͕…™™•Ρ•)…Α…Έ)‘ΥΙ₯ΉœΡ‘”έ₯ΉΡ•Θ½˜€ΘΐΔΨ΄ΘΐΔάΈY₯Ι½±½δ€ΤΔΘθ€ΰ΄ΘΐΈ)Q‘₯́ΑΥ‰±₯…Ρ₯½Έ₯́…Ω…₯±…‰±”…Ё‘ΡΡΑΜθΌ½έέάΉ½ΨΉΥ¬½½Ψ΄)•ΙΉ΅•ΉΠ½½±±•Ρ₯½ΉΜ½…Ή₯΅…°΅‘₯Ν•…Ν•Μ΅₯ΉΡ•ΙΉ…Ρ₯½Ή…°΄)΅½Ή₯Ρ½Ι₯ΉœΉδ•ΉΕΥ₯Ι₯•ΜΙ•…Ι‘₯ΉœΡ‘₯́ΑΥ‰±₯…Ρ₯½Έ)Ν‘½Υ±‰”Ν•ΉΠΡΌΎ…Ё₯…‘΅…Α‘„ΉΝ€Ή½ΨΉΥ¬