Hooo-Hooo Volume 11 Nr 3 - Page 15

tadorna), in Switzerland at three sites in mute swans (Cygnus olor) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and in mute swans in Germany in Sachsen Anhalt. Elsewhere, the H5N8 HPAI virus also continues to be reported in South Africa, where it has now been reported in several regions and several poultry types. Notably, several commercial ostrich farms in Western Cape Province and recently in Eastern Cape Province in a layer farm which is part of an integrated poultry producer. The FAO has produced a situation update as part of the quarterly bulletin for the southern Africa region (FAO, 2017). This highlights the vulnerability of this region for low income households which rely on smallholdings of poultry for food security and therefore how important it will be for the authorities to provide support and advice to poultry keepers. The disease is circulating in wild birds, and to date several species have tested positive, including several Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus), blue cranes (Grus paradisea), a house sparrow (Passer domesticus), a peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), an African rock pigeon (Columba guinea), and a spur winged goose (Plectopterus gambensis). Of these wild birds, several are long range migrants. The viruses responsible are closely related genetically to those affecting Central Asia, Europe and elsewhere in Africa (West and NE). In South East Asia other avian influenza serotypes continue to be reported, including H5N1, H5N2, H5N6 as well as H5N8. Notably, H5N6 HPAI was reported in the Philippines which was the first report of any HPAI virus detected in the islands and is another indication that this virus belonging especially to clade 2.3.4.4, has now become established in South East Asia but it also spreading further globally than previous clades. 2017 October 15