Hooo-Hooo Volume 11 Nr 3 - Page 11

Copper accumulation in the liver in wildlife occurs primarily because of impaired copper excretion due to chronic portal pathology, excessive dietary intake or overdosing by injection. Inherited defects in copper metabolism have not yet been proven in African wildlife. The primary presentation of copper poisoning is that of hepatic necrosis and/or intravascular hemolysis with methemoglobinemia. 3. Zinc severely emaciated with extensive alopecia and thick surface crusting in affected areas (figure 4). Marked thymic atrophy was encountered (figure 5). On histopathology, there was outspoken cutaneous parakeratosis with heavy colonization of the parakeratotic crust by opportunistic fungi. Following dietary supplementation with trace elements including zinc, these pups showed a dramatic recovery (figure 6). Analysis of liver for zinc can reflect zinc deficiency but is not a reliable tissue for zinc adequacy. In the bovine calf, liver zinc levels are significantly higher in animals originating from herds that supplement trace minerals compared to those that do not, whether the same applies in African wildlife is unknown at this stage. Zinc is present in many metalloenzymes and is involved in DNA replication, RNA and protein synthesis, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, gene expression and appetite regulation. Therefore, the clinical manifestations of zinc imbalances can be severe. Due to zinc’s electron configuration, many other metals interact with it and these interactions are frequently involved with both deficiencies (antagonistic) or toxicities (synergistic). These antagonistic and synergistic influences make interpretation of zinc levels in tissues complicated as both deficiencies and toxicities may occur at apparently normal zinc tissue levels. Figure 4: African wild dog puppie showing severe emaciation, alopecia and crusting dermatitis. Figure 5: African wi @FrWF&6fGVVBFV7G&Fp6WfW&RF֖2G&6Ɩ67G&W2'6W'fVB2FVf6V@26VFR"&G6FFFV7&V6V@Vff6V7bfVVBW6RFV7&V6VBWFFR w&wF&FW2&Vv"6B&VBf6F'&VW&W&F62&W&FF2V6&'FV֖f6F&vVB&'F&6W70WFW&RW'F&VBfF֖WF&Ɨ6V7W&W76F֖2G&BVF^( 07FfbvB7vVƖrbFRF7FWG&V֗FW2@FVf&VBfW2खF266Rb2FVf6V7ƗGFW"b'V@g&6vBFrWW2ffV7FVB2&W6VFV@vF66W"w&wF&FW27'W7FrFW&FF0B'FƗGB7B'FVffV7FVBWW2vW&PfwW&Rcg&6vBFrWW27B27WVVFFࢆvR6W'FW7b6vFƖfR#p7F&W