Hooo-Hooo Volume 11 Nr 2 - Page 9

depleted first. Fat stores do not usually surround the organs. Healthy wild pangolins usually have fat scores of 4 or 5 (i.e. high fat reserves) which appear to be independent of season. Note any abnormalities in organ placement, and the amount and appearance of fluids in the chest or abdomen. • • Bladder and uterus (right) with bladder removed • and then remove a core of bone marrow for formalin fixation. Remove the pelvis. Find the urinary bladder, which lies deep in the pelvis. Freeze any urine present in a sterile container. Sample a small portion of the bladder wall for histology. If the animal is a male, remove the entire male reproductive tract including testis, vs deferens, accessory glands and penis for formalin fixation for Prof. Jansen. Prof Jansen to provide samples of both testis and accessory glands for histology when reproductive studies are complete. If the animal is female, remove the entire female reproductive tract for Prof. Jansen. Prof Jansen to provide Dr Lane with samples of both ovaries, uterus and vagina for histology when reproductive studies are complete. If it is a female, sample the mammary gland for formalin fixation. Note the animal’s body condition, as an indication of the duration of its illness and it’s nutritional status: note the amount of fat around the heart and kidneys, and muscle development. Fat scores are recorded on a sliding scale from 0 to 5, with 0 indicating no fat reserves (and muscle wastage), while a score of 5 indicates large fat reserves. Fat is stored subcutaneously and in the pelvic region, with the pelvic fat reserves usually being • Cut through and sample for pathology the diaphragm, which divides the chest from the abdomen. Take a sample of spleen in formalin; one in 100% ethanol in an Eppendorf tube for Dr Bastos, and a third sample in a Ziploc bag for freezing. Locate the free end of the pancreas between the spleen and the kidney and take a sample for pathology in formalin. Then, put both adrenal glands in formalin (or full-thickness slices in large animals). They are in the fat just above both kidneys (oval, flat, yellow-orange organs, about 1\20th the size of the kidney). Check the thickness of the adrenal cortex for indications of stress, which is common in recently translocated or confined animals being fed a new diet.Next, sample full-thickness slices of both kidneys including the cortex, medulla and pelvis; for formalin-fixation; also take a small portion for Dr Bastos (100% ethanol); and freeze the remainder in a Ziploc bag. o Sample for formalin-fixation both the left and right sides of the liver, and also take a 100 gram sample of liver for freezing (in a ziploc bag) and a small sample for Dr Bastos (in 100% ethanol). In front of heart (in young animals particularly), sample the thymus which is just in front of the heart attached to the pericardium and appears similar to fat but is more pink/red. Skin the back of the jaw and locate, just underneath the skin, salivary glands and lymph nodes (if present), which need to be sampled only on one side. The salivary glands again appear similar to fat, though are usually tan and firm. At the very beginning of the trachea, find and sample from each side, the firmly attached dark-to-light red and firm thyroid glands. Carefully dissect out and sample the xiphisternum. 2017 September 9