Hooo-Hooo Volume 10, Nr 1 - Page 9

Ballum was the predominant serovar detected in freeliving vervet monkeys following capture. Severe and sometimes fatal clinical disease has been observed in capuchins, squirrel monkeys, marmosets, tamarins and macaques with the disease spectrum resembling that seen in humans. Severe icteric, anicteric, and pulmonary forms were described and meningoencephalitis and abortion has also been reported. Leptospirosis in domestic and wild felids Ellis (2015) reports that cats are regarded as being very resistant to leptospirosis and although significant seroprevalences have been reported in various cat populations very few reports of clinical disease are, however, present. Attempts at experimental infection have mostly failed. Evidence of renal carriage in cat populations in Reunion Island and Taiwan have recently been reported to be a 29 % and 67 % PCR positive rates respectively. A similar situation in wild felidae is presumed, with only the Iberian lynx being associated with significant clinical disease. Serological surveys carried out in Brazil revealed exposure of captive jaguars to the serovars Castellonis, Hardjo, and Copenhageni whilst Pomona was the most prevalent serovar found in free-living sampled jaguars. A more recent study by Onuma et al (2015) reported high antibody titres to serovar Canicola in two jaguars. The main natural reservoir is the dog, suggesting an occasional contact between jaguars and domestic dogs. Leptospirosis in camelids Ellis (2105) quoting several studies and authors mentioning that high seroprevalences have been reported in alpacas, vicunas and llamas and lower seroprevalences in guanacos in South American countries. Seroprevalence rates have been low and ranging from 0–12 % in dromedaries from North Africa and the Arabian peninsula. A seroprevalence of 50% has been reported in Rajasthan. Leptospirosis in feral pigs and wild boar Feral swine (Sus scrofa) have markedly increased their range and population sizes by continually expanding into urban areas in many areas of the world in the last 2-3 decades. As consequence their ranges nowadays may overlap to a significant extent with domestic swine and human activities. Transmission of Leptospira sp is becoming of increasing concern. Sera from 2055 feral swine in the United States were examined by Pedersen et al (2014) for antibody presence to six serovars of Leptospira and 13% of all samples tested positive for at least one serovar, suggesting that Leptospira infection is common in feral swine. Vale-gonçalves et al (2014) quotes several authors whom have reported seropositivity to different serovars of Leptospira sp in wild boar populations worldwide. Positive titres to tarassovi have been reported to be frequent and the most reactive serovar observed in wild boar from Slovenia. Serovar Pomona is the most frequently reported in wild boar populations in Spain and Germany and the second most common in Croatia. In a study by Vale-gonçalves et al (2014) they obtained serum samples during the 2011 – 2013 hunting seasons in northern Portugal and screened it against 17 different pathogenic serovars of Leptospira sp. Seropositivity was detected against nine serovars in 66 (65.4%) of these samples. They found the highest seroreactivity rates against serovars Tarassovi and Altodouro (23,8% and 16,8%, respectively), followed by Autumnalis (7,9%) and Bratislava (6,9%). Age and the district of origin were identified as risk factors in contrast to gender. During the hunting season 2012-2014, 3621 blood samples from wild boars were collected in Poland originated from different geographical areas across Poland. Serum samples were tested for the presence of specific antibodies to the Leptospira serovars: Icterohaemorrhagiae, Grippotyphosa, Sejroe, Tarassovi, Pomona, Canicola, Bratislava, Autumnalis, Hardjo and Ballum. Antibody titers to all Leptospira serovars except serovar Ballum were found in 377 serum samples (10.4 %). Leptos