Hooo-Hooo Volume 10, Nr 1 - Page 10

WildLife Group of the SAVA detailed information is available for farmed red deer in New Zealand, where serovar Hardjo is most common, Pomona less common and Copenhageni uncommon. Hardjo has also been recovered from rusa deer while mixed Hardjo and Copenhageni infections have been observed in some animals. Experimental infection of pronghorns with Hardjo has been described. Pomona strains have been the most common isolates from deer and reported in red deer, whitetailed deer and rusa deer. Clinical disease and signs Ellis (2015) refers to reports of clinical disease in a diverse range of zoo animals, black rhinosceros, a giant anteater, a polar bear, black tailed deer and a wild dog. Leptospirosis is recognized as one of the most common causes of stranding and mortality in the Californian sea lion. Disease is characterized by liver and kidney infection resulting in acute renal failure and death. Other pinnipeds also known to be affected includes northern fur seals, northern elephant seals and harbor seals Ellis (2015) reports that although limited information is available in buffalo the situation in domestic buffalo is very closely resembling that seen in cattle. High seroprevalences have been found in virtually all investigations and it is quoted that acute disease has been associated with jaundice, fatal haemorrhagic syndrome and agalactia with abortion as a sequel in this species. Information on clinical leptospirosis in camels is lacking but abortion is a feature and leptospires were demonstrated in 8/49 aborted foetuses (7 by PCR and culture and 1 by PCR only). In farmed red deer in New Zealand serovar Hardjo is subclinical, with losses between birth and weaning and poorer live weight gain being the only possible clinical effects identified. Pomona is more likely to cause clinical disease, 10 and Copenhageni infection has been associated with clinical disease. Infection has been identified in a foetus from a herd with a Hardjo titer. Pomona infection has been implicated in acute hemolytic disease of red deer, mule deer and white-tailed deer. Conclusion The One Health operational concept has been promoted and its advocates has defined it as a collaborative efforts of multiple disciplines working locally, nationally and globally to achieve optimal health of people, animals and the environment. It has impetus in the history of Ebola hemorrhagic fever and avian influenza epidemics - both diseases in which whose transmission mechanisms exist at the animal-human-ecosystem interface - both examples of diseases which has a negative impact on human and animal health and related to economic issues. Globally leptospirosis is widespread and considered as emerging or re-emerging, or neglected in different geographical areas, and in different time spans, in both socio-economic and political context. By estimation there may be well over 1,700,000 severe cases of leptospirosis worldwide. The incidence of human disease in the Americas, as example, is high, estimated at 12.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, compared with a global incidence of 5.1 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The question raised is if there will be a renewed global interest in leptospirosis and in particular in the role that wildlife may play.