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attention can be correlated with individual SA, but this remains unclear. 16 Data displays In the OR, the anaesthetist monitors up to 32 real-time variables while performing many other tasks (for example, intubation, administration of anaesthetic gases and drugs, insertion of intravascular catheters, communication with the surgeon etc). This large workload can lead to deficits in performance. Failures in detecting changes in the patient’s situation can lead to critical incidents; therefore, effective information display is essential. Patient monitors provide relevant information required for establishing accurate SA, 3 and improving the design of the displays in a way that facilitates the extraction of time-critical events can avoid harmful patient outcomes. 17 In traditional displays, single pieces of information, each derived from a single sensor, are presented; the anaesthetist then must then integrate all this information to obtain an accurate picture of the patient’s state. This is time consuming and involves a high cognitive demand. Therefore, a recent and growing field of study concerning the improvement of monitor displays has been developed. The use of graphical objects, that integrate different variables and facilitate rapid visual perception of the patient’s situation, have the potential to improve clinical performance by reducing detection times for critical events and increasing the anaesthetist’s SA. 17,18 Conclusions The OR is a complex and critical environment where conditions may change in a short period of time. The knowledge and improvement of SA can increase the performance in this domain and, therefore, provide better patient outcomes. To accomplish this common goal, all members of the surgical team must perform their roles with full understanding of the situation. Training and experience can provide the skills and behaviours that influence the achievement of good SA. It is widely recognised that critical event management in patient simulators is a potentially beneficial tool: however, there are still no sufficient methods to objectively determine its effectiveness. SA can also be improved through effective data presentation and, so far, several promising studies on OR displays have been presented but further research is needed. behavioural markers of SA (for example Anaesthetists’ Non-Technical Skills scale, Ottawa Global Rating Scale). The SA Rating Technique is less intrusive but was found to have no correlation with measured SA using SAGAT. 3,15 Rating techniques using behavioural markers are applicable in clinical settings but they are intended to assess non-technical skills in general and are not designed to specifically assess SA. 3 Performance-based techniques evaluate the global performance associated with a measure (for example, simulated patient outcome); however, they do not inform directly about SA. More recently, eye tracking devices have been used to evaluate SA during simulated critical incidents, hypothesising that the distribution of visual References 1 Endsley MR. Design and evaluation for situation awareness enhancement. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 32nd Annual Meeting 1988:97–101. 2 Endsley MR. Theoretical underpinnings of situation awareness: A critical review. In: Endsley MR, Garland DJ (eds) Situation Awareness: Analysis and Measurement. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah NJ; 2000:3–32. 3 Schulz CM et al. Situation awareness in anesthesia: concept and research. Anaesthesiology 2013;118(3):729–42. 4 Schulz CM et al. Situation awareness errors in anaesthesia and critical care in 200 cases of a critical incident reporting system. BMC Anesthesiol 2015;16(4) 5 Endsley MR. Towards a theory of situation awareness in dynamic systems. Hum Factors 1995;37:32–64. 6 Endsley MR, Jones WM. A model of inter- and intrateam situation awareness: Implications for design, training and measurement. In: McNeese M, Salas E, Endsley MR (eds) New Trends in Cooperative Activities: Understanding System Dynamics in Complex Environments. Proc Hum Fact Ergonomics Soc 2001:46–67. 7 Xiao Y, Mackenzie CF, Patey R. Team coordination and breakdowns in a real-life stressful environment. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 42nd Annual Meeting, Chicago, October 5–9, 1998:186–90. 8 Garbis C, Artman H. Team situation awareness as communicative practices. In: Banbury S, Tremblay S, (eds). A Cognitive Approach to Situation Awareness: Theory and Application. Ashgate Publishing Company, Burlington, USA;2004:275–96. 9 Harris KT et al. Improving patient safety with team coordination: challenges and