PAIN OF CRUELTY How FGM is carried out? World Health Organization has classified FGM into 4 main types. Clitoridectomy or removal the whole clitoris or its part is referred as type 1. Type 2 is the excision. In this total or partial clitoris and inner lip (labia minora) is removed along with or without the outer lip (labia majora). Type 3 is attributed as infibulations. Infibulations is narrowing the opening of the vagina by cutting and rearranging the labia. Type 4 includes all the other harmful acts to the female genitals. These procedures can lead to many health issues and complications. What are the prompt effects after FGM? Unbearable pain, severe bleeding from the wounded genitals, shock, infections like tetanus, HIV, hepatitis B&C, damage to nearby organs (urethra) ,difficulty to urinate and psychiatric issues. What are the lifelong consequences? Abnormal menstruation, kidney failure/impairment, chronic infections in vagina and pelvic, constant urine infections, damage to the reproductive system, infertility, complicated pregnancies, pain during intercourse, depression, libido and anxiety. As we all are responsible citizens we should take necessary actions to stop this heartless activity.