Hazard Risk Resilience Magazine Volume 1 Issue 2 - Page 49

49 Long-term studies are difficult to do and inherently expensive because they require monitoring a population over an extended period of time, and require consideration of multiple demographics, such as healthy, elderly, and chronically ill populations. The duration of exposure is crucial to health outcomes. Populations can be exposed to re-suspended ash through routine activities and by efforts to clean-up and remove ash from communities. On the island of Montserrat, where ash persists in the environment for years, gardeners were shown to have the highest exposure to re-suspended ash. Conversely, the majority of ash from the 2010 eruption of the Merapi volcano in Indonesia had been removed from towns and cities within weeks of the cessation of the eruption. For this eruption, exposure was probably minimal as the eruption took place during the rainy season, ɕ