Growing Forward 2 - Final Report - Page 33

CURRENT SITUATION: CHALLENGES Currently, in Ontario, veterinarians, pharmacists and approved lay outlets can sell antibiotics. Some antibiotics require a prescription and some are available OTC. There is no oversight by a veterinarian for the purchase and use of these OTC drugs. The Ontario government licenses Livestock Medicines Outlets (LMOs) to sell veterinary antibiotics. LMOs include feed mills and other retail premises. Some of these products can be ordered on-line and mailed to the farm. Non-prescription antimicrobials for feed use are approved by Health Canada and listed in the Canadian Compendium of Medicated Ingredients Brochure (MIB). Only drugs, drug combinations, species indicated and level of inclusion that are specifically listed in the CMIB may be used in feed, unless accompanied by a veterinary prescription. However, a drug that has only therapeutic approval, and is not labeled for growth promotion, cannot be used as a growth promoter, even with a veterinary prescription. Health Canada has an OUI policy that allows for importation of a 90-day supply of humanuse drugs for personal use. This policy allows for the importation of some veterinary drugs by animal owners, using a so-called “loophole” in the policy. To be specific, the policy was originally intended to be applied to individuals (humans and animals), but has been broadened to include importation of product for herds and flocks of animals owned by an individual. Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) are bulk, pharmaceutically active substances (chemicals) that are purchased as such from chemical suppliers and used in the formulation of drugs in dosage form. APIs are intended for modification prior to use by a licensed drug manufacturer, pharmacist or veterinary practitioner. It is noteworthy that licensed drugs sold in Canada must meet Health Canada’s Good Manufacturing Standards, while uses of APIs by veterinarians and pharmacists do not. The representation of APIs as veterinary drugs in dosage form is illegal in Canada. The direct administration of APIs carries risks to animal health, and in the case of food animals can compromise food safety and pose risks to trade for food animal products. Currently, in Ontario, veterinarians, pharmacists and approved lay outlets can sell antibiotics. Some antibiotics require a prescription and some are available OTC. There is no oversight by a veterinarian for the purchase and use of these OTC drugs. CVO Survey respondents were questioned about the importance of various factors that may impede prudent use of antibiotics. The majority of respondents reported that the OTC sale of antibiotics through lay outlets was the most important factor impeding prudent antibiotic use, followed by the OUI importation of antibiotics for “own use” by producers and the importation and usage of APIs (Figure 8). In every species group, the OTC sale of antibiotics through lay outlets and OUI imported antibiotics for “own use” by producers were viewed as the factors most significantly impeding prudent use of antibiotics. Proportion of Respondents (%) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 Impedes prudent use significantly 10 Impedes prudent use somewhat ms La ck of re co rd ing of us eo fA BX yp ’t/t am on eo ro on ion ict str /re far s am gr co ep tiv en ei nc hs g’n re of La ck fA BX me s for AB X ca Pu r Sa le of cli nic al ve de t in cis -v ce se ba ion ets ct du sis re ich wh on ch ar se re Does not impede prudent user La ck of to BX fA go din an rst de un of tan dp el ic’ lac ep PI fA eo ck La ro fA PI dit eo ag ’s t or na nd us dc an m tio rta Im po Us X AB of ’s y . om ee far enc lill a rve su mo di ce -f ce tan sis re BX fA go nd rs e du ss ro re -p tan sis din an rst de ck La un of ck La ce rp fA BX ec go din an rst de un of ck La re tat ion so ow th/ xp re ce du Pr o llin be La ur tio s od uc pr od pr gr for om fs uc er ts tle ou eA BX us e” by lay gh ou “o wn thr go BX for AB X of dA rte Sa le po Im n 0 Figure 8: Factors impeding prudent use of antibiotics (ABX=antibiotics) Response to CVO Survey question: “Please rate the following factors as to their impact on the prudent use of antibiotics in food animal production?” 33  Antibiotic Use in Food-Producing Animals in Ontario: A Study of the Current Practises and Perceptions of Ontario Veterinarians