GANGA 65th Issue - Page 7

Newsletter No. 65; IRBMS transportation and irrigation projects along the country wide watersheds program after program river valley can be started, and the flow of the river had been envisioned. Current spending on such can be controlled easily. programs is estimated to be roughly four billion US In a study by the Central Pollution Control Board, dollars per year with numerous watersheds. Kolong River has featured among 71 most polluted Despite the level of attention and funding receives in the country. watershed practitioners do not have a clear understanding of the overall effectiveness of watershed Special Feature:- programs, contributing Why the failure of Watershed programs are so high in India. to the how overall these programs ecosystem and hydrology cycle and how it is impacting poverty reduction and human welfare, which watershed In the last episode of this article various Govt. of interventions are most beneficial, and how to India Initiated watershed programs during last 40 adjust programs for near and long-term climate years has been discussed. These programs either risks. Furthermore, there is a lack of understanding aimed to improve agricultural yields in rainfed of how revitalized ecosystems might improve regions, or to conserve soil erosion but over the resilience to climate change and conversely, how past forty years, watershed programs has evolved increasing rural dependence on climate-sensitive from a top–down, technical, and bureaucratic agricultural income might increase vulnerability. approach to a participatory approach including Indian social, encounters many problems and constraints; some ecosystem interventions. based Unfortunately with it is technical more on watershed management program are listed below; beneficiary centric than participatory ecosystem (a) based approach. based on water conservation for a rainfed area It was never river basin level water conservation program for restoration of river basin ecosystem, as a result in spite of such money consuming programs, present time India is facing one of the worst water crisis in it’s history. It clearly suggests that the last four decades Govt. led programs did not fulfill the objective and purpose for which the India’s watershed programs are primarily where there is very little canal irrigation is present. Therefore watershed development practices considering River basin and catchment become secondary. (b) Rainfall uncertainty and poor economic conditions act as a major constraint and thus prevents the farmers in rainfed areas from making 7 Integrated River Basin Management Society