G20 Foundation Publications Australia 2014 - Page 70

70 C L I M AT E C H A N G E & S U S TA I N A B I L I T Y including competing water uses, the lack of common measurement and indicator systems, the failure of economic systems to properly value water ecosystems and the long-standing bureaucratic turf battles between ministries of water and agriculture. This is changing. Water and agricultural specialists are realizing the merits of crafting integrated policies on water management and food security, driven by the common challenge that climate change is exerting on hydrological systems, growing seasons and the changing risks of large-scale crop failure. Scientific models showing the impacts of extreme weather events on water cycles and water availability have, unfortunately, been proven all too often by extreme flooding and prolonged drought catastrophes. The three-year drought in the U.S. Southwest is one example of the multi-year droughts countries and regions are facing. The deep drought conditions in New South Wales and Queensland are well beyond the normal cycle of droughts and are exerting profoundly negative economic impacts on local agricultural producers, their families and communities. The ability of agricultural systems to adapt to prolonged drought through efficiency and conservation is limited. It is impossible to conserve if there is no supply. Climate change is thus pointing to the need to take a look, through a sustainable development lens, at the pattern of agricultural investments in the face of changing water scarcity linked to climate impacts. It makes little economic—let alone environmental— sense to ramp up investments in water-intensive crops bound for export markets in areas that are already water- stressed. As high-value, water-intensive export farm crops face diminishing water supplies, many have turned to groundwater aquifers to continue farm output. Yet groundwater aquifer tables in a growing number of regions are under increasing strain by the twin impacts of scarcity and near depletion, coupled with contamination from agro- chemical inputs such as nutrients. As the planet’s population increases, food-growing systems face mounting pressures to secure long-term supplies of clean water Agricultural “drain” on water supplies has partly driven the recent wave of foreign investment in farmland. It is advantageous for (often developed) states with insecure or depleted water resources to outsource their water use by purchasing land in (often developing) states and growing crops abroad. What has been termed a “land grab” may C L I M AT E C H A N G E & S U S TA I N A B I L I T Y perhaps be better labelled a “great water grab,” as the land purchase \و]H\H]]H\]\\Y\ݚYYHH]K\H[\Y[ٝ[ZHXH[][[[Y\[XYHX[˜[[\و\]Y]\\Y\܈]\X[Y[Y[ݙ\[B[XY\][]\\[X[YY›ZHX[]\[]\H[\]]\[[]][ۈX]Y[]XX[^\\ܝX\[H\X\]\X[Y[Y[ RT8&\\X\Z[XH]\X[Y[Y[[[\\Z[H\H܈[Yܘ]Y\X\˂^\]HY]Y[Yܘ]Y]\\\HX[Y[Y[܈™XY\ˈY][XXK\\[\][H]\[][]H[XZ[\[HHYܚX[\[X܋RT\[\[ۙY[\X]Y[ݘ]]H[Y[KX\Y][ۜ›ZHH\Hو[YXۛ^H][ۜ[[ݙH]Y[HZH\[˜]H[YH[YH]ۋ]KYܛ[\[Y[H]YY\܈]\[]\B\HZ[Y] HܙH\ۈRT\X\Y\]ܙ\[X]B\[Y[H[HXY]Y]]H\X\][ۈو[[][]Y\[\H\[\[[X\Z[[][]Y\[\[\H\[[وܙY[\H\™[Z\[ۜ\HXY[X[X[YX[ۜ[Z\[ۜ\\[X]BY\][ۈYܝ[ܙX\K8\\B[B\Z[X[]B[[B]\]HY^X[[Z][ L[\\H\Xۚ^Y܈H\[YHHȞ\8'BZXH܈؈ܙX][ۋXۛZX™ܛ[][Y[8'K[YY \H\H]Xܜ[Hؘ[Xۛ^H]\H\]YX[B][ۙY\\\HXZBHYۚYX[۝X][ۈBXZ܈[[\و\[Y\B[\][[\[ Z\[œ[H]وݙ\KYYX\[H[\ۛY[[\[š[\[\[XXH[\[K[HXY][H\ܚXZ[\ۙB[ LوۙH[[ۈ[H][[Hܛ[H[HYX\܈H\[YK[\][ۘ[\\\][[ L\\Y^X][ۜ[ܙ]IK[[\Hܛ0[B[X\XH K  Z[[ۈ\\ˈ\\^ܝX\[Z\ܙY\ IHܛ]H[وT K[[ۈ[][YK\ܛ\H\^XY۝[YBݙ\H^XY\ˈSܙX\š[\][ۘ[\][\H H IB[ M [۝[YH^[[\ K[[ۈ[\][ۘ[\\H HY\\XZ܈[\[\ˈY]^[ۙHY\HXY[Hو\\H\Z[ۈ]XܙX]\YۚYX[H^K\Hܛ۝[Y\XHHܚ]X[[[\›و[][XۛZXܛ X\[[\[ X[[\]Z]H[[X]B[K[][][ܛ[Z[[™XۛZX\[Y[H[ZH[\YH]Ȟ[[Z] H[ZHX[] \œXۚ^YȞXY\YY][[Y^XYX\Y\\KۙHوH\\ܛ[[[\[Y[XۛZXXܜ›و\[Y\[\[XZHHXZ܂۝X][ۈ\Z[X[]H[[]YB[\8$XۛZXX[[[\ۛY[[ \\HYX[[\]B][Y[[XYZKXܙ]\KQ[\[ ܛ\\Hܙ[^][ۈ SB\\H[]\ۙHوH[YX]H[H[\]HX[][Y[ \YX\ܛ\\B^K[\YۈH\H[YHو\\B[[][]H][Y[ YY\\p[X[Z[ۙ\[ܙB\[Y[[][]Y\H[Y[[[][ۜ[H\\H[YHZ[[[\\[[]YX[YYX][ۋ\X]HZ[[[[ݙ\[K[YY Hݙ\\[[[Hق\Z[X[]H\[HܙX]ܝ[]K\\Hܛ YX[YY\ۜXH[]X[K[۝X]HۛHXۛZX™][Y[][\[ܙHXBY]Y\\[\H[[ۈ[X[ۈو]\[[[\[\\\˂\\[ܙK\\H۝X]\œY[\]HY][ۜ[X]]Y\[ݚY\\\\܈۝\][ۋ^Kݙ\H[[ۈ[H\H][[BܛXXYX\\\[[HܛZYXBؘ[ܘH܈][Y[ XX[YHB][ \H[[ܝ]H\[][ۂ܈^HXHH[X\] B\H۝X][Hۙ[YHZ[]ܙX]\؜ݚY\][Z[\\›[[][]Y\[[[X][H[[]ܝ[]Y\܈H]\]\K[X ]\و\\x&\ۈ[\\\\H[[Y[\ۛY[[HX[[\\[[Z[š[][]Y\ˈ\Z[XH\\B\[ܘ\H]]X[[][ۜ\ق\\[[\ۛY[[H][[˜\]]]H\\H\[\\ܙX]BX[[\[][ۜ˂H\Z[X[]H\YYBY] ]]\ۜXHX[Y[Y[[\Y[[[\\H[]\H\Y[[\Xۈ\[][ۜ[Y]Y\8$™[XY[H[\ۛY[ \\[œX[X\\[\ܝ\[[\[[Y\ˈ\Z[X[]H]\\YܙHHB[ۙ][ۘ[\YYHو\X܋[XX[Hۘ\و[H[[][Z[[[H^ۙ[X[ܛوH\\HX܈[]˜[Y]]HYYX\[وBY[H]\[\][[\\قH\[][ۜ[Y]Y\X[YH\]ܜH\[Hܛ H\]HYܝH[و\Z[X[]H[\[B[XZ[[YX[]]ۙX]BYܝ[[ۙHXXX܋]]B[\\\[][Y]Kݙ\Y[œ^HHY[]]HH[\X\[\\B\H][ۘ[Y[HH[\[Y[[X\XY\ۈH۝[X[Y[Y[قHX܈[ۚ[[ۈ][\\BZZ\ˈ][[H^Z[Y[[ZZ\[ܙX\HZ\۝X][ۈ\Z[XH][Y[[H]ܚ[HܙX][ۈو؜[X[XܛH\ Ȟ[[Z][]\[XHٙ\[[[XXHܝ[]H܈ܛXY\ܚ][HS[Y]ܚ[][ۚ[š[H L MH\Z[XH][Y[Y[K[\]\\\\B\\[[^[ܙ[\Hܝ[]B[ٛܛH\\Y[وۙ\Z[XH[[[YXۛZXܛ[[\]H