Food Quality Magazine July 2016 - Page 7

ISSUE 03 | JULY 2016 food fraud mitigation plans. Here, we will take a closer look at three important aspects of food fraud risk mitigation, specifically: management of vulnerabilities within your supply chain, market intelligence around food ingredients, and adulteration detection methods. Vulnerability Assessment and Management Since food fraud is an intentional act committed by knowledgeable fraudsters, a traditional food safety risk assessment framework is not a suffi- Food Quality Magazine cient approach to the problem. Most organizations recommend identification and assessment of vulnerable ingredients and supply chains based on an evaluation of multiple factors. The results of this type of a vulnerability assessment can then be used to create a food fraud risk mitigation plan. USP outlined the many factors that can contribute to food fraud vulnerability in the Food Fraud Mitigation Guidance (FFMG), published in 2015 in the Third Supplement to the Food Chemicals Codex 97. The FFMG guides users through a process of evaluating and ranking nine contributing factors to food fraud vulnerability and creating a food fraud mitigation plan. The contributing factors are listed below, with real-world examples for each: • Supply chain: what is the degree of vertical integration in the supply chain for a particular ingredient, or are purchases made on the open market? 7 Available at Figure 3. Prior to the discovery of melamine adulteration of milk products in China, the Chinese dairy system was comprised of many small farmers and a complex system to collect and consolidate the milk. This system benefitted from flexibility, but arguably increased fraud risk. 7