Flashmag Digizine Edition Issue 107 July 2020 - Page 139


For example, gold is completely inactive on a micrometric scale while it becomes an excellent catalyst when it takes nanometric dimensions.

All the major families of materials are concerned: metals, ceramics, dielectrics, magnetic oxides, polymers, carbons, etc.

Beyond nanometric matter, it is important to emphasize that the real genius of nanotechnology is to compose objects on a nanometric scale in order to assign them precise tasks, both constructive and destructive. Nanotechnology is used in both medicine and defense; with the endless possibilities it offers in the hypothesis of biological warfare.

Also, despite the progress that Nanotechnology could bring to life, it also presents enormous dangers for living beings. Apart from the pollution due to the risk of exposure to nanoparticles during the manufacturing processes of nanometric materials or objects, the use of nanotechnology poses more and more an ethical problem because the size of nanotechnological compounds is often invisible to the naked eye, and easy to dissipate into the atmosphere. This makes some people fear the realization of the perfect crime, by those who master this technology.

While the pollution of living organisms by nanotechnological particles is dangerous, apart from the proven cases of asbestos contamination whose carcinogenic capacities no longer need to be demonstrated; other studies have been done to establish the risks posed by nanoparticles, in fact, the inhalation of carbon nanotube. (These nanotubes are defined as being a filament having a resistance 100 times greater than that of steel, and this with an unusual resistance to high temperatures). AFSSET (The French Agency for Health and Safety in Environment and Work) has shown that inhaling carbon nanotubes suppresses certain immune functions in mice. For fourteen days, for six hours a day, mice were respectively exposed to concentrations of carbon nanotubes of 1 mg / m3.

These guinea pigs subjected to this dose presented a loss of their immune defenses. Even if the human immune system is certainly more resistant, one can deduce that the immune system can be degraded and will thus be able to let through several kinds of viruses, infections, etc.

In biotechnology, the manufacture of nanorobots or other inventions of this type can have very serious consequences on all living beings: the loss of their control, because of their combination with artificial intelligence, which would give them the autonomy in decision-making, the ability to multiply. Self-healing, or self-destruction, at will is a real time bomb.

Nano robots can be specially designed to interact with cells in the human body or any other living thing. Also, in Australia to repair certain areas of the brain, researchers at Monash University in Clayton found the solution by manufacturing a nanorobot with a diameter of 250 nanometers (To have an idea, we can compare this nanorobot to a soccer ball and the brain, to Earth. This nano robot can be injected into blood vessels to repair areas of the brain that are inaccessible to conventional surgery.

Another negative aspect of nanotechnology is bio war, and the use of nanotechnology by the world's armed forces. Several writings have been published, notably that of Stanislas Lem who publishes a study on 21st century weapon systems proving to be a premonitory vision.

Indeed, he explains in his book the new forms of weaponry of tomorrow. He introduces his study by comparing nanotechnologies to bacteria that survived 65 million years ago during the impact of a meteorite on Earth , which decimated all the dinosaurs and other "large" organisms. Consequently, he deduces from this that the more the destructive effects of an elementary force or a technical weapon, the more the small species will be spared and will escape annihilation. He therefore believes that the future of armaments is the use of nanotechnology. Miniaturization and diversification are therefore the best evolutionary strategies in the face of major disasters. Nanobots are therefore the future of armaments. According to Stanislas Lem, their roles would be to parasitize enemy systems and their machines in order to take all kinds of information or else put them out of working order. We can therefore expect an electronic war using nanobots in the future.

While the main inputs into the human body of nanomaterials or nano objects are the skin, the respiratory tract (thus the pulmonary alveoli) as well as the irrigated organs such as the liver, the kidneys, etc. In pregnant women, nanoparticles can reach the placental zone and thus have consequences on the fetus. It is easy to imagine that a bacteriological weapon in the form of a spray containing nanotechnological robots could be used to combat populations and worse in the form of nano robot or object, vaccine can be inoculated into population groups for shady design. What 10 years ago was scarcely considered as science fiction, has become a reality.

Flashmag July 2020 www.flashmag.net