82 | 83 ENVIRONMENT & CLIMATE TOPIC INNOVATIVE FORCE BEHIND CLIMATE COOPERATION Internationally, Germany has played a piv- pioneer with regard to carbon dioxide tar- otal role in putting climate protection on gets; it has pledged to lower emissions by the map. The Federal Government was an 2030 by at least 40 percent compared with innovative force as long ago as the negotions 1990. The main tool is the EU emission trad- leading up to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. In the ing scheme, which regulates the emission of treaty, the industrial nations committed to carbon dioxide by around 11,000 major in- reducing their greenhouse gas emissions by dustrial corporations and power plant oper- 2012 by an average of 5.2 percent in compari- ators. It will be reformed with a view to son with the 1990 baseline. Germany actu- making it more effective. Germany is also ally did much more than that, as it succeed- actively advancing climate cooperation ed in lowering emissions by 21 percent by with other countries, for example as regards 2012. Germany also plays an active part in issues such as tropical forest protection and the negotiations for a follow-up treaty to the energy efficien cy. Kyoto Protocol set to come into force in 2020. The goal: a binding climate agreement The “Transatlantic Climate Bridge” repre- with clear rules for limiting greenhouse gas sents a particular form of cooperation with emissions. It will involve emerging markets the USA and Canada. Germany’s pioneering and the Global South also committing to role in climate research is supported by work climate protection measures, and will make at universities and institutes such as the certain there is a considerable increase in Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Re- funds for climate adaptation and technol- search and the Wuppertal Institute for Cli- ogy transfer. In the Global North, the EU is a mate, Environment and Energy. MILESTONES 1976 1987 1991 The then German Ministry of Research resolves to build a 100-metre-high large wind power plant (Growian) in north Germany. However, the first experiment with wind power fails and Growian is torn down in 1988. At Kaiser Wilhelm Koog on the west coast of Schleswig - Holstein, the first German windfarm goes turnkey. Since then, 32 wind turbines have been transforming North Sea wind into electrical power. The Electricity Feed-In Act regulates the obligation for power utilities to purchase electrical energy from regenerative transformation processes and sets fixed tariffs for the remuneration thereof.