48 | 49 FOREIGN POLICY role in constructively advancing European icy, who chairs the Council of Foreign Min- policy. isters, is also Vice-President of the European Commission. Italian Federica Mogherini has German-Polish collaboration is a more re- held this office since 2014. She is also respon- cent element in the European unification sible for representing the EU externally on process. In the 1970s, Federal Chancellor all CFSP issues. A newly established European Willy Brandt’s Ostpolitik achieved initial External Action Service (EEAS) assists the successes in reconciliation with Poland. High Representative in discharging her duties. This was continued by the recognition of Through these institutional innovations the the two countries’ common border in the EU has considerably strengthened its visibility Two Plus Four Treaty on the external as- and efficacy outside its own territory. It has pects of German Unity in 1990, and with also advanced its crisis management. Under the Border Treaty concluded the same year the aegis of the EU, several foreign assign- and institutionalised in the 1991 German- ments with German participation have al- Polish Treaty on Good Neighbourliness. ready been conducted. The close relationships with France and Poland are nurtured in the trilateral format of A focal point of EU policy is to foster re- the Weimar Triangle. lations with the organisation’s eastern neighbours and the countries bordering More global weight through eastern and southern Mediterranean rim. joint European action With regard to this Neighbourhood Policy, migration and the fight against terrorism The 2009 Treaty of Lisbon institutionalised are increasingly being prioritised. Irregular the Common Foreign and Security Policy immigration to Europe is a pan-European (CFSP) still further. The EU High Represen- issue. To this end, in April and June 2015, tative for Foreign Affairs and Security Pol- the European Council passed a comprehen- MILESTONES 1957 1979 1993 The European unification process begins. The signing of the Treaties of Rome by Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands marks the foundation of the European Economic Community (EEC). Europeans vote together. The Members of the European Parliament, which sits in Strasbourg and Brussels, are directly elected for the first time. They had previously been delegated by the national parliaments. Europe’s union becomes tangible for its citizens. In Schengen in Luxembourg, Germany, France and the Benelux countries agree to end internal border controls. Other countries follow.