Equine Health Update Issue 2 Volume 19 - Page 32

EQUINE | CPD with vestibular and facial nerve dysfunction and nasal discharge. SCC at this location are characterised by lo- cally infiltrative growth patterns. Neoplasia may extend into the oropharynx, into the tympanic cavity, invade through the temporal bone to the calvaria as well as through the mandible into the regional lymph node. Distal metastatic spread to the lung is rarely reported. while extension up the distal oesophagus with occlusion is less frequently documented. Treatment Urinary Bladder Surgery remains the only viable treatment modality at this location, although locally infiltrative growth pat- terns complicate surgical options. Oral Cavity Treatment of gastric SCC is generally not attempted as the disease is usually advanced at presentation with the prognosis being grave. Although urinary bladder tumours are rare in the horse, SCC are the most common bladder tumour of horses. Treatment SCC of the gums and hard palate develop as a con- sequence of chronically irritated alveolar epithelium in cases of periodontitis. At these locations, these tu- mours exhibit destructive locally infiltrative growth pat- terns and are prone to metastasis to the regional lymph nodes. Invasion of tooth roots, with tooth loss, and max- illary / mandibular bone is common. Maxillary tumours often extend into the adjacent sinuses plus nasal, orbital and cranial cavities. Glossal SCC is an uncommon form of oral SCC in the horse. Treatment Combinations of surgery and metronomic chemothera- py have been attempted with varying outcomes. Stomach Gastric SCC are the most common tumour of the stom- ach of horses. They arise from the pars esophagea and are most commonly documented in middle aged to older animals. Clinical signs are non-specific including unexplained anorexia, in some instances dysphagia, and weight loss; but symptoms usually only become evident when the neoplasia is in an advanced state. Invasion through the stomach wall with peritonitis is common; 32 Treatment Radical surgical resection with urinary diversion is the only realistic therapy option available and so rarely per- formed. Diagnostics Cytological preparations (FNA, impression smears, scrap- ings) are hampered by the fact that cells are interpreted in isolation with no correlation to architecture at the site sampled. Therefore, cytology at best can suggest a di- agnosis of SCC. However, biopsy of affected tissue into formalin for histopathology remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of SCC. Histopathology allows for critical evaluation of c •±±Υ±…Θ)…ΡεΑ₯„°…ɍ‘₯Ρ•ΡΥΙ…°‘…Ή•Μ°΅₯Ρ½Ρ₯Œ₯Ή‘•ΰ°₯ΉΩ…Ν₯Ω”)Ι½έΡ Α…Ρѕɹ́…Ή½΅Α±•Ρ•Ή•Ν́½˜±½…°•α₯Ν₯½ΈΈ±°)½˜Ρ‘₯́₯Ή™½Ι΅…Ρ₯½Έ₯́Ι₯Ρ₯…°ΡΌ…ΥΙ…Ρ”ΑΙ½Ή½ΝΡ₯…Ρ₯½Έ)…ΉΡ‘”‘•Ω•±½Α΅•ΉΠ½˜•™™•Ρ₯Ω”…ΉΙ•±•Ω…ΉΠΡΙ•…Π΄)΅•ΉΠ΅½‘…±₯Ρ₯•ΜΈ)II9 L(ΔΈ€%!•έ•Μ €˜MΥ±±₯ΉΜ,€Θΐΐ丁I•Ω₯•ά½˜Ρ‘”ΡΙ•…Π΄)΅•ΉΠ½˜•ΕΥ₯Ή”ΥΡ…Ή•½ΎΉ•½Α±…Ν₯„ΈAΙ½••‘₯Ήœ½˜)Ρ‘”΅•Ι₯…ΈΝΝ½₯…Ρ₯½Έ½˜ΕΥ₯Ή”AΙ…Ρ₯Ρ₯½Ή•ΙΜΈ+ŠˆΕΥ₯Ή”!•…±Ρ UΑ‘…Ρ”ƒŠˆ