Equine Health Update EHU Vol 20 Issue 01 - Page 12

EQUINE | Disease • Imidiocarb 12% m/v dosage = 2ml/100 kg body mass applied by intramuscular injection once, is considered to be the most effective. If necessary, lower doses can be repeated at 24 to 72 hour intervals for 2 to 3 treatments. • Diminazene 0.07g/ml dosage = 3.5 mg/kg body mass applied by intramuscular injection. Repeated treatments may be required to control Theileria equi infections and significant injection site muscle damage has been reported in some cases. Figure 6. Equine fetal liver demonstrating yellow discoloration due to cholestasis clinical cases where blood smears are inconclusive and as a means of identifying carriers. Various serological (compliment fixation, IFA, competitive Elisa) and immunoblotting (Western blotting) techniques can be used to try and identify infected animals. IFA and Western blotting procedures are able to distinguish between Theileria equi and Babesia caballi infections. The IFA and competitive Elisa serological assays are the prescribed tests for international trade. Treatment and Control. Effective treatment of clinical cases usually involves a combination of anti-protozoal drugs (imidiocarb, dim- inazine) in conjunction with tick control and support- ive therapy (fluid therapy, antipyretic’s, blood tonics and enterics). Anti-protozoal agents only temporarily clear Theileria equi from carrier animals. However, clearance of organisms in endemic regions such as South Africa serves no purpose, as lifelong immunity (pre-immunity) is believed to be conferred by chronic inapparent infection. 12 •Oxytetracyclines are only effective against Theileria equi when administered intravenously (IV) at a dose rate of 5 - 6 mg/kg body mass once daily for 7 days, but not Babesia caballi. Prevention of infection in endemic areas such as South Africa is virtually impossible. The pre-immunity conferred with initial infection ser ٕ́ѼɽѕЁѡ)͔ɽɕɕЁ͕͔Չ͕ՕЁɕ̸+ )II9 L(Ĺ]PY!ɑ(иեAɽ͵̸ͥ%)%ѥ͕͕́́1ٕѽɹ=ᙽɐ QݸԴ(и(ȹMЁ̸䰁ͥ́ѡɅ䁽Q)ɥդѥ鄰иYЁ]ɱشȸ(̹5ѱ4dЁกAɕمQɥդ )ͥѥ͕́́Ѽɕͽɍȁɵ́)ѡѠѕɸɕMхєAɽ٥MѠɥ=ѕ))ɹYѕɥI͕ɍĴظ(й<$ȸեAɽ͵̸ͥ%=%5Յѥ)Q́ÝȁQɕɥ̸=%Aɥ̸(Թ]͔08Ё̸I٥܁եAɽ͵̸ͥ)ɹ)Yѕɥ%ѕɹ5дظ+ե!ѠUє