Equine Health Update EHU Vol 19 Issue 4 - Page 13

EQUINE | Equine Disease Update Contagious equine metritis was diagnosed in Germa- ny. Ten Icelandic stallions and five mares were con- firmed positive on a total of 13 premises. France diagnosed a case of equine coital exanthema (equine herpesvirus 3) on two premises as well as one case of leptospiral abortion. Nocardioform placentitis was confirmed in Kentucky, USA, with five cases caused by Amycolatopsis spp and two by Crossiella equi. Twenty-three cases of salmonellosis were reported by the USA during the second quarter of 2017; reported serogroups included B (15), C1 (2), and C2 (6). The USA confirmed three cases of Clostridium perfrin- gens Type A genotype in foals in Kentucky, one case of Tyzzer’s disease (C. piliforme), and isolated cases of C. novyi and C. sordelli infection. Three outbreaks of rotaviral diarrhea were recorded in France. The USA reported a case of proliferative en- teropathy (Lawsonia intracellularis) in a foal. Rhodo- coccal related disease was reported as endemic in the USA, with 22 cases recorded during the review period. rica with 41 confirmed cases, two of which were co- infections with equine encephalosis virus. Equine Colic Update There is a prophecy about equine colic: As long as there are horses, they will have colic. Based on reports in the literature over the last 50 years, the incidence of all colic cases has not changed over time and the incidence in a normal horse population ranges from 1 to 10 episodes of colic per 100 horses each year. However, horses that have had one or more previous episodes of colic have an incidence rate up to 5 times higher. Survival varies with the severity of the disease, but the overall mortality rate for all types of colic in horses is approximately 7%-10%, second only to fa- talities due to musculoskeletal injuries. Incidence varies from farm to farm based on management, with a higher frequency expected in specific populations of horses such as broodmares near term, horses with small strongyle infection, or those exposed to abrupt changes in management. Horses being treated for eye disease and those hospitalized after general anesthe- sia for elective procedures also have an increased in- cidence of colic. The causes of these acute intestinal diseases remain Switzerland diagnosed two cases of atypical myopathy and four cases of ehrlichiosis, the latter involving three premises. West Nile encephalitis was reported by South Africa (44 cases, lineage 2 virus) and the USA (one case). Five of the cases in South Africa represented co-infection with equine encephalosis virus and three others with Middleburg virus. Equine encephalosis was reported by South Africa and confirmed mostly in Gauteng Province. Encephalitis due to Middleburg virus was reported across South Af- • Volume 19 no 4 • December 2017 • 13