Cultural Encounters: A Journal For The Theology Of Culture Volume 11 Number 1 (Winter 2015) - Page 52

LAMENT - Carlson define trauma as both “single-incident” (e.g., assault, disaster) and “complex or repetitive” (e.g., ongoing abuse),5 and they identify a spectrum of people groups facing “cumulative adversities” that may cause and compound complex trauma: • Economically impoverished inner city ethnoracial minority persons • Incarcerated individuals and their children and families • Homeless persons and their families • Sexually and physically revictimized children or adults • Victims of political repression, genocide, “ethnic cleansing,” torture, or displacement • Developmentally, individuals • Civilian workers and soldiers harassed and assaulted on the job or in the ranks • Emergency responders who are repeatedly exposed to grotesque death and suffering6 intellectually, or psychiatrically challenged While providing further evidence of the DSM-5 definition’s narrowness, the list above only begins to grasp the totality, diversity, and prevalence of traumatic experience. One thousand one hundred and fifty-two Congolese women are raped daily (forty-eight per hour);7 one in three American women knows the interpersonal trauma of physical assault8—and who knows how many countless individuals live with the trauma of emotional, verbal, and 5. Christine A. Courtois and Julian D. Ford, eds., Treating Complex Traumatic Stress Disorders: An Evidence- Based Guide (New York: The Guilford Press, 2009), 15. The authors are following the proposal of Lenore C. Terr, “Childhood Traumas,” American Journal of Psychiatry 148, no. 1 (1991): 10–20. 6. Courtois and Ford, Treating Complex Traumatic Stress Disorders, 17–18. 7. Amber Peterman, Tia Palermo, and Caryn Bredenkamp, “Estimates and Determinants of Sexual Violence Against Women in the Democratic Republic of Congo,” American Journal of Public Health 101, no. 6 (2011): 1060–1067. 8. Steven R. Tracy, Mending the Soul: Understanding and Healing Abuse (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2005), 14. 51