Cultural Encounters: A Journal For The Theology Of Culture Volume 11 Number 1 (Winter 2015) - Page 45

VOLUME 11, NUMBER 1 A JOURNAL FOR THE THEOLOGY OF CULTURE positive evaluations,46 increased perceptions of shared beliefs and values,47 enhanced memory for positive information about others,48 and a reduced tendency to blame others for an accident or other negative outcome.49 If we are working with a revised, more inclusive ingroup identity, many of the categorization processes that once were detrimental to intergroup relations can be redirected to include former outgroup members. An experimental field study demonstrated that a common superordinate identity is powerful enough to affect not just feelings but also behavior toward a racial outgroup. In this study,50 the researchers predicted that university affiliation (the common superodinate ingroup) would trump race (ingroup/outgroup distinctions) at a college football game. To prove this, the researchers systematically varied race (black and white) and university affiliation (same team or opposing team). Depending on the condition, white game attendees were approached by either white or black interviewers from 46. Marilynn B. Brewer, “Ingroup Bias in the Minimal Intergroup Situation: A Cognitive-Motivational Analysis,” Psychological Bulletin 86, no. 2 (1979): 307–324; David M. Messick and Diane M. Mackie, “Intergroup relations,” Annual Review of Psychology 40, (February 1989): 45–81; Henri Tajfel, “Cognitive Aspects of Prejudice,” Journal of Social Issues 25, no. 4 (1969): 79–97; David A. Wilder, “Social Categorization: Implications for Creation and Reduction of Intergroup Bias,” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 19 (1986): 291–355. 47. David A. Wilder, “Intergroup Contact: The Typical Member and the Exception to the Rule,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 20, no. 2 (1984): 177–194; Rupert J. Brown and Dominic Abrams, “The Effects of Intergroup Similarity and Goal Interdependence on Intergroup Attitudes and Task Performance,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 22, no. 1 (1986): 21–33; Rupert J. Brown, “The Role of Similarity in Intergroup Relations,” in The Social Dimension, ed. Henri Tajfel, vol. 2 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984), 603–623; Michael A. Hogg and John C. Turner, “When Liking Begets Solidarity: An Experiment on the Role of Interpersonal Attraction in Psychological Group Formation,” British Journal of Social Psychology 24, no.4 (1985): 267–281. 48. John W. Howard and Myron Rothbart, “Social Categorization and Memory for Ingroup and Outgroup Behavior,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 38, no. 2 (1980): 301–310. 49. Miles Hewstone, Michael H. Bond, and Kwok-Choi Wan, “Social Facts and Social Attributions: The Explanation of Intergroup Differences in Hong Kong,” Social Cognition 2, no. 2 (1983): 142–157; Georgette Wang and Jack McKillip, “Ethnic Identification and Judgments of an Accident,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 4, no. 2 (1978): 296–299. 50. Jason A. Nier et al., “Changing Interracial Evaluations,” 299–316. 44