Compassionate Integrity Training Final CIT training manual 11-30 - Page 22

Compa ssionate Integrit y Tr a ining A S e cu l a r Ethic s A ppr oac h to C ulti vat ing Pe rs on al, S o ci al and E n vir on me n tal F lo u r i shing Frans DeWaal, a primatologist at Emory University, psychologists such as DeWaal conclude that maternal conducts research with different animal species to see care is likely the common factor at the root of these how deeply the sense of social connection extends. tendencies. At some point, dating back to at least the DeWaal and colleagues examine which emotions, last common ancestor between birds and mammals, specifically moral emotions, are shared with other there was a shift that occurred toward the ability animals. Moral emotions include: gratitude, compassion, to care for offspring. From this, the social and moral forgiveness, empathy, and a sense of fairness and justice. tendencies developed in a more concrete way out of a DeWaal and his colleagues are increasingly finding evidence need to extend and receive care. All this helps to explain to demonstrate that other mammals do experience why sociality and the ability to care and respond to care social and moral emotions, at least in protoform. is a very deep and internalized mechanism within the human brain and body. It has been found, for example, that Capuchin monkeys reject unequal pay for equal work. 11 In studies, monkeys Moving from birds and mammals to humans, research were rewarded with a small slice of cucumber when has been conducted with infants and young children they completed a simple task. However, when one showing similar outcomes to the research with monkeys. monkey started to get rewarded with a grape, a better Presumably before these infants and young children are reward, the other monkey stopped participating if it imprinted with the teachings and learning that come was only offered a cucumber. The monkeys who were with later life, children still distinguish helping behavior offered unequal rewards become agitated, banging on automatically. 14 For instance, 5-month-old babies have the cage and making loud vocalizations, and refused to been found to show preferences for animations of char- participate until they were given the same reward. acters or puppets that are providing help as opposed to those impeding others. 15 Even extremely young infants The presence of what we might consider social and reach out toward those characters providing help and moral emotions among animals, at least in a protoform, is not limited to unequal pay, but extends to cooperative behavior, reciprocal helping and remembering help. 12 care and move away from those impeding help and not giving care. 16 For instance, if one monkey or chimp helps another, If it is believed that humans are intrinsically selfish, it has been found that the recipient is more likely to then all human institutions (including business, criminal return that kindness the next day or on subsequent justice, law, medicine, etc.) will inevitably reflect this days, suggesting a form of protogratitude even among perspective. If we see ourselves as having compassion nonhuman animals. Consolation behavior is also at the core, then we can look for different ways to do commonly witnessed when two chimpanzees get into business, establish justice, conduct law and practice a fight, and the chimp who lost the fight is consoled by medicine. It is important to acknowledge that selfishness another member of the group who puts his or her arm is not the same as self-interest, which is a basic attitude around the loser. 13 of preferring and seeking well-being. CIT’s approach Since such examples are common among mammalian and bird species, primatologists and comparative does not eliminate self-interest; rather, the question is whether we can be wise about our self-interest and Ce n t e r for Compa s sion , I nteg r i t y and S e cu l ar E t hics | L ife Uni ve rsi t y | M ar ie t ta, G e or g i a - 16 -