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appeared since 2000; this has been accelerated by the capitalist crises. Denmark has witnessed the biggest fall in industrial production of any European Union country within the country itself, with the exception of Ireland. According to the employers and the bourgeoisie this has happened because Danish labour contracts, safety regulations and ‘high social benefits’ are harmful to their cost capabilities and competitiveness. But the truth is that labour productivity has risen sharply, and at even higher rates since the crises of 2008. In recent years industrial companies have seen the highest increase. The level of productivity (the value produced per hour) is estimated by EuroStat at 425 Danish kroner an hour (approximately $71 US) for industrial employees – one of the highest figures in the European Union. Concerning the share of wages of the workers – that is the part of the value created that is spent on wages (the value of the special commodity labour) new figures show that it is now less than its historical average. In the year 2000 it was at the lowest point since 1966. This also means that the surplus value – the part of the value created by the workers that is appropriated by the capitalists, their unpaid labour – has increased, both relatively and in absolute figures. This testifies to the fact that the competitive ability of Danish industry is very good. We see a high level of exploitation of the workers, high quality, big earnings and profits. Today only a quarter of the working class is employed in industry and construction. Another quarter is employed in the public sector – taking care of the sick and elderly, as day care workers, etc. A third quarter is employed in trade 6 and transport – as drivers, shop assistants, cleaners and so on, while the last quarter works in a number of smaller branches. One out of every five persons employed is termed a ‘non-typical employee’. That means working in temporary and limited jobs, as substitutes, modern day labourers employed by the hour. They have fewer rights and often no pension. One out of four are working part time. The share of part time workers in retail trade is around 75 percent. More and more people cannot survive on one income alone and have to combine different jobs to make a living. The working class is increasingly composed of people of different nationalities, lan- guages, trade union organisations and traditions. The ‘open’ internal market of the European Union has induced the employers to engage in social dumping of cheaper labour force from the poorer EU countries. These are workers who are forced to seek employment away from their homeland and families. Today 9 percent of those employed in Danish firms are foreign nationals, mostly workers. In addition there are people on contract with foreign employers who are working in Denmark, and there also is a group illegally traded to the country, who have no rights at all. While the number of workers from neighbouring countries like Sweden and Germany is decreasing, the largest new groups of workers, around half, come from Eastern Europe, especially from the Baltic Countries, Poland, Ukraine and Romania. Large public construction projects, as for instance metro, railways and bridges, have only a few Danish workers. Foreign workers make up half of those working as cleaners and a quarter of the cleaning industry. They make up one out of four in hotel and service and one out of five in agriculture, slaughterhouses and restaurants. Trade and transport has the largest number of foreign employees, while industry employs half of this number. Health service is the fastest growing business in terms of foreign workers. A growing number work as part of a multinational labour force employed in Danish global companies such as Maersk, Arla or Carlsberg that are spread over many countries, or in a foreign corporate group placed in Denmark. This underlines the necessity of the workers’ inter- national struggle and solidarity. The conglomerate ISS World with more than half a million employees in 51 countries is the fourth largest employer in the world, only surpassed by Wal-Mart, Group Four Securicor (G4S) and Tesco, ahead of companies such as McDonald’s and Siemens. A process of mass ejection from the labour market has been going on throughout the economic crises, with the reduction of social security and a whole series of reactionary neoliberal reforms – prominently among these un- employment security and benefits. This affects among others people who are dependent on social security schemes, many who are ill or in poor health. A number of people are kicked or left out of these, with no income at all, and officially have to be supported by a partner. This process also makes the stratum outside or underneath the working class – traditionally called the lumpen proletariat (the proletarians in rags) – grows. They constitute a group of people surviving from one day to the next, outside or on the fringe of the labour market – including homeless people, the mentally ill, addicts, prostitutes and people without legal papers. Class Struggle