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bourgeoisie and the proletariat enjoy equal political rights. But they are not equal in class status: one class, the capitalists, own the means of production and live on the unpaid labour of the workers. The other classes, the wage-workers, the proletariat, own no means of production and live by selling their labour-power in the market. The abolition of classes means placing all citizens on an equal footing with regard to the means of production belonging to society as a whole. It means giving all citizens equal opportunities of working on the publicly-owned means of production, on the publicly-owned land, at the publicly -owned factories, and so forth. This explanation of socialism has been necessary to enlighten our learned liberal professor, Mr. Tugan, who may, if he tries hard, now grasp the fact that it is absurd to expect equality of strength and abilities in socialist society. In brief, when socialists speak of equality they always mean social equality, equality of social status, and not by any means the physical and mental equality of individuals. The puzzled reader may ask: how could a learned liberal professor have forgotten these elementary axioms familiar to anybody who has read any exposition of the views of socialism? The answer is simple: the personal qualities of present- day professors are such that we may find among them even exceptionally stupid people like Tugan. But the social status of professors in bourgeois society is such that only those are allowed to hold such posts who sell science to serve the interests of capital, and agree to utter the most fatuous nonsense, the most unscrupulous drive and twaddle against the socialists. The bourgeoisie will forgive the professors all this as long as they go on “abolishing” socialism. March 11, 1914 contd from page 6 men and women cannot be scientific. Even in the women there are varied in their classes with varied class interests. There is no ground of reality to the independent women movement that intends to collect all the women under one umbrella. There is no economic and social basis to take forward such a movement and, in the end, it only limits to the interests of the women of the elite classes. These sorts of trends are being propagated in India mainly by NGO organisations. These organisations are debating only about the forms of patriarchal oppression widely, but not expressing or propagating the fact that individual property is the basis for patriarchal ideology. Their silence about the liberation of toiling women, who are oppressed under the semi -feudal and semi - colonial system, will ultimately lead to protecting the interests of the exploiting classes. Therefore the liberation of women is linked with the liberation of majority of toiling masses without any doubt. So the movements of the toiling women shall be inter- linked and intertwined with the movements for the change of society. While fighting against wrong tendencies on a proper basis, the CPI (M-L) is striving to build the movement for the liberation of women from the system of exploitation and oppression. ™ reproduction belongs to the bodies of the women, and ignoring the societal angle of the issue. The male hegemonic society considers the childbirth as an animal activity even today. On the other hand, it created the ideology that motherhood creates a higher status to the woman. The objective of this ideology is to hand over pious heirs to the male. Even today the system of exploitation is having the reproduction activity. Toiling man and woman are a matter of no importance in these activities. Exploiting class itself decides as to how many children have to give birth in future by the workers and decides the future labour power to be given birth according to its profit making requirements. At the individual level the decision is doubtlessly taken by the male. Under such conditions, to talk about the freedom of reproduction is meaningless. In the background of the inequalities between women and men in India, people are divided in society on the lines of classes, castes and nationalities. Without talking about these inequalities, talking only about the equalities of 8 C.P.I(ML) Publication Centenary of Great October Socialist Revolution Seminar Papers For Details: P.Jaswantha Rao, Secretary, T.N.Memorial Trust, 32-13-26/1, M.R.Puram, Vijayawada, pin-520 010. Class Struggle