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governments to enact certain laws to solve the problems of women. We know that on various occasions, the governments made some enactments owing to some movements. The move- ment for women franchise in other countries, the movement for right to abortion, the movement for the right to education for women in India, the movement for abolition of child marriages and for widow remarriages have certainly influenced the women. But these reforms were unable to touch the root of the problems. They were unable even to go nearer to the issue of liberation of women. Even the rights provided in the law have not come into practice due to so many limitations. A glaring example for this can be seen in the failure of anti-dowry act. The very idea that liberation of the women can be achieved through laws and reforms is too unrealistic. Such trend only takes the women movement far away from the task of giving politics to the toiling women. “It is our duty to take politics to reach every toiling woman” - Lenin In the recent years, certain trends have come to the fore. The important among them are: - The problems of women must be seen from the angle of women alone; - Patriarchy shall not be considered as the question of ideology, but as the question of base; - The contradiction between man and woman is antagonistic contradiction; - They talk about the right of reproduction without going into the relations of production - They demand the freedom of sexuality to women question- ing the control on women’s sexuality ; June - 2018 - They opine that women are a class since they are sub- jected to male domination; - They conveniently ignore class exploitation as the main problem of majority of the women. If one examines these opinions with the outlook of dialectical and historical materia- lism one can easily understand that the first division of labour was done between woman and man on the natural basis. In the work division that stipulates domestic work to women and outside work of hunting for men, there was no domination or dependency of one gender in the other. The home (a home of the primitive society) was the centre of production and distribution. The women, who conducted the domestic duties, had enjoyed certain status too. But due to the limitations to the production at home and due to the wider scope to the production outside the house, the labour outside the home has developed and a surplus in the production was accumulated. Men aspiring to give their property only to their children had, with his financial might, subjugated the women forcibly. They withdrew the freedom of women. They reduced women into instruments that give birth to their children, as entities that satisfy their sexual urges and as domestic servants. This transformation based on personal property led to patriarchal ideology. The objective of this transformation is that the women have to handover the pious heirs. If this has to happen, women shall be pure. This very idea is the main objective of patriarchal control over women. Since it is impossible to control women with physical might alone, various patriarchal ideas of male dominance were propagated through religious beliefs and social customs. In this way the idea that women are dependant and males are dominant has been spread for generations and crystallised. Ultimately a stage has come where women themselves accept as inferior to males and they themselves propagate the same idea. The personal property, when reached to the stage of capitalism through various stages, the capitalist pays the worker a part of his labour power as wages, but not the total value of the entire labour. A worker, who spends all his labour power of that day in the industry, has to recoup his labour power through the domestic services and go to work the next day. So the capitalist has to pay wages to the worker to the extent of domestic activity the wife of the worker who conducts the domestic activity and to tend the future generations of workers whom the wife conceives and tends-the total amount needed to this activity. But in the capitalist system of production where profit alone is the objective the capitalist pays only the wages that keep the worker alive loots the surplus value. Due to competition, value of labour is being decreased while the necessity of domestic service activities increases proportio- nately. Thus the capitalist is looting even the labour of the worker ’s wife directly. The payment for the domestic services done by her has to be paid by the capitalist who employed her husband. But since the domestic services were enjoyed by the male of the house, the opinion that he himself is exploiting her has come into prevalence. This protects the real exploiter and safeguards him. 5