Cinema, Destination Image and Place Branding Cinema, Destination Image & Place Branding - Page 192

CINEMA, DESTINATION IMAGE & PLACE BRANDING tourism studies to be conducted in the future. In Korea and Japan, people often visit nature (mountains, valleys, and rivers) not far from their home over the week- end as one day trip or short trip. Although these trips can be categorized into recreation, visits to natural sites designated by the government including national parks can be addressed in terms of a broader category of tourism activity, rather than recreation. Therefore, this study proposed the “Passive Urban Ecotourism” concept which expands the category of ecotourism much studied so far into nat- ural environments which people have easy access in their every lives and tested hypotheses. However, this study has a limitation that it fails to provide a firm theoretical ground for the proposed “Passive Urban Ecotourism” concept. Research catego- rizing the ecotourism concept have not been made enough, which include a study of Weaver and Lawton (2002) which further classified the nature of ecotourism into hard (active, deep) and soft (passive, shallow) type and that of Weaver (2005) which further divided the concept into two types: Comprehensive Ecotourism and Minimalist Ecotourism. In addition, Buckley (2000) raised new issues related to eco- tourism in the NEAT (Nature, eco-and adventure tourism) study, and Wight (1996) segmented the ecotourism market into two types based on characteristics — Gen- eral Consumers Interested in Ecotourism and Experienced Ecotourism Travelers, setting directions for ecotourism research. Further studies are needed to develop a more in-depth theory of “Passive Urban Ecotourism” to expand the concept of ecotourism and present more empir- ical findings regarding characteristics, lifestyles, and motivations of ecotourists participating in “Passive Urban Ecotourism” in order to drive efforts of various research on ecotourism and contribute to the sustainable development of the tourism industry in small and medium scale cities and areas having no tourist resources other than nature. References Aaker, D. A. (1996). Measuring Brand Equity Across Products and Markets. California Man- agement Review, 38(3), 102-120. Ashworth, G., and Page, S. J. (2011). Urban tourism research: Recent progress and current paradoxes. Tourism Management, 32, 1-15. Assaker, G., Vinzi, V. E., and O’Connor, P. (2011). Examining the effect of novelty seeking, sat- isfaction, and destination image on tourists’ return pattern: A two factor, non-linear latent growth model. Tourism Management, 32, 890-901. 192 return to the content page