Cinema, Destination Image and Place Branding Cinema, Destination Image & Place Branding - Page 179

THE STRUCTURAL RELATIONSHIPS OF DESTINATION IMAGE, AWARENESS, UNIQUENESS AND DESTINATION LOYALTY IN THE PASSIVE URBAN ECOTOURISM DESTINATION 4. Methodology In order to empirically test the structural relationship between destination image, destination awareness, destination uniqueness, overall satisfaction, and destination loyalty which constitute the Passive Urban Ecotourism Model pro- posed in this study, concepts are defined and measurement items are introduced as below. Besides, characteristics of Nabari City in Japan, the subject of this study, are surveyed and analyzed in the following manner. 4.1. Questionnaire design (1) Destination Image: Although many scholars have suggested definitions of destination image, this study adopts the definition of Crompton (1979) and Kotler et al. (1994), that is, “the sum of beliefs, ideas, and impressions that a person has on a destination.” Therefore, urban ecotourism destination image in this study is defined as “the sum of beliefs, ideas, and impressions that a person has on an urban ecotourism destination.” In connec tion with tourism destination image research, many scholars classify destination image largely into dimension of cognitive image and affective image (Beerli and Martín, 2004a, 2004b; Ignacio and Martín, 2008), since there are various components of destination image including tourism environments and nature, infra- structure, service quality, events, and history and culture. However, given the characteristics of Nabari City, the subject of this study, this study produces measurement variables of urban ecotourism destination image, confining to nature variables. Thus, referring to measurement variables of destination image used for studies of Chen and Tsai (2007) and Chi and Qu (2008), four measurement variables such as ‘Scenic mountain and valleys’, ‘Breathtaking scenery and natural attractions’, ‘Picturesque parks/lakes/rivers’, and ‘ Uݥɹ͍́ѥݥdݕɔɽՍ䰁)ݡɔͥ̀Mɽ䁑ͅɕMɽ䁅ɕ1(ܵЁM(Ȥѥѥ݅ɕ́хѕٔɕЁɕ͔Ց̴́)ѥѥɽ٥ЁɅ́ѥѥ݅ɕ́Ѽ)䁥Ёمɥ Ё䤁՝́Ց)ЁѥѥɅ͕ЁѡЁѡͥɅ݅ɕ́)͕́хЁՕѥمɥ̸%ɑȁѼɔ݅ɔ)ɕɸѼѡѕЁ(