Cinema, Destination Image and Place Branding Cinema, Destination Image & Place Branding - Page 174

CINEMA, DESTINATION IMAGE & PLACE BRANDING tourism from the findings of a study by Fennell (2001), which are nature-basis, preservation/conservation, environmental education, sustainability, distribution of benefits, and ethics/responsibility. Referring to the research by Fennell (2001), Weaver (2001) also defined ecotourism with a focus on three factors such as 1) attractive nature, 2) educational effect of interaction between ecotourists and the nature, and 3) ecological, socio-cultural and economic sustainability. Ecotourism is a form of nature-based tourism that strives to be ecologically, socio-culturally, and economically sustainable while providing opportunities for appreciating and learning about the natural environment or specific elements thereof. (Weaver, 2001, p.105) Weaver (2005) also divided ecotourism into comprehensive type and mini- malist type; he argues that minimalist type is characteristically elemental natural- based (Attractions), superficial understanding (Learning), and status quo-based (Sustainability) and takes soft forms of tourism such as short trips, physically pas- sive activities, and multi-purpose visits. In regards to these categories of eco- tourism, Wight (1996) reported that hiking placed first in the popular activity package rankings of the North American ecotourism market. These findings, although from a study around 20 years ago, indicate that hiking to nearby natural sites which citizen most often and easily do in their daily lives can be included into the category of ecotourism of minimalist type, that is, that of passive ecotourism. 2.2. Ecotourism Destination and Urban Ecotourism As discussed so far, ecotourism destination research sites are characteristically worldwide primitive natural environments highly valuable to preserve or areas pre- served by the government such as national parks. Among major ecotourism desti- nations are primitive natural environments like Costa Rica and Kenya and national parks such as the Rocky Mountain National Park. In terms of research content, there are studies including that on Costa Rica to suggest directions for the cooperation between policy makers based on the characteristics of ecotourists visiting Costa Rica (Campbell, 1999), a case study about policy process and organization activities relat- ing to ecotourism of Costa Rica (Tepelus and Córdoba, 2005), a study to suggest direc- tions of sustainable policy making for ecotourism via a comparison of the magnitude and situations of ecotourism between Costa Rica and Kenya (Weaver, 1999), a study on propose ecotourism market segmentation on the basis of tourism activities and motivation, and characteristics of visitors to Gold Coast in Australia (Weaver and Law- ton, 2002), a study which assesses sustainability of ecotourism by presenting achieve- 174 return to the content page