Cinema, Destination Image and Place Branding Cinema, Destination Image & Place Branding - Page 173

THE STRUCTURAL RELATIONSHIPS OF DESTINATION IMAGE, AWARENESS, UNIQUENESS AND DESTINATION LOYALTY IN THE PASSIVE URBAN ECOTOURISM DESTINATION and Tsai, 2007; Chi and Qu, 2008; Ignacio and Martín, 2008) have not been con- ducted enough. Therefore, this study empirically examines how destination image, awareness, and uniqueness of passive ecotourism tourists who visit for a one day trip natural tourist sites near the place they live have a structural relationship with satisfaction and repeat visit by proposing a theoretical model, with the aim of exploring factors significant to the sustainable ecotourism development of small Japanese cities. Furthermore, it is also expected to set directions for policies to raise competitiveness of small cities and similar tourist sites and for the develop- ment of marketing strategies. 2. Ecotourism and Urban Ecotourism 2.1. Definition of Ecotourism The term ecotourism first appeared in the English language academic litera- ture in the 1980s and has become a key theme of tourist research as it is now since the United Nations declaration of the year 2002 as International Year of Ecotourism, IYE and the publication of the Journal of Ecotourism in the same year (Weaver and Lawton, 2007). Ecotourism was initially defined by international organizations due to the need of mutual cooperation to preserve valuable nature of countries world- wide and promote international tourism exchanges regarding such nature. In 1990, the International Ecotourism Society (TIES) defined ecotourism as below: Ecotourism is responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environ- ment and improves the well-being of local people (TIES, 1990) As far as academic definition of ecotourism is concerned, Buckley (1994) pro- posed four restrictive frameworks for the definition of ecotourism: nature based tourism, conservation supporting tourism, environmentally educated tourism, and sustainably managed tourism. Based on the definitions proposed by 25 scholars from the 1980s through the 1990s, Sirakaya et al., (1999) introduced a total of 13 major themes for the definition of ecotourism 2 . Afterwards, Fennell(2001) listed 85 definitions relative to ecotourism, and Donohoe and Needham(2006) suggested six key normative tenets of eco- 2 Ecotourism Definition Major Themes : Environmental-friendly tourism, Responsible travel, Edu- cational travel, Low-impact travel, Recreational and romantic trips to natural sites, Contribution to local welfare, Ecocultural travel, Sustainable/nonconsumptive tourism, Respon sible-business approach to travel, Community involvement, Tourist involvement in preservation, Buzzword, Contribution to conservation. return to the content page 173