Cinema, Destination Image and Place Branding Cinema, Destination Image & Place Branding - Page 159

FILM-INDUCED SLUM TOURISM: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND MODEL PROPOSAL have been found by Meschkank (2011) in Mumbai’s Darhavi Slum tours, where according to the author, tourists look not only for the real slum, but also for the real India, which they believe to find in Darhavi. Therefore, the author states that the slum tourism phenomenon is a response to an increasing demand for real and authentic experiences. This willingness of experiencing an authentic and non-touristy place was conceptualized in the present model as “authenticity motivations”. Tourist visits to places with the goal of experiencing an authentic reality are commonly known as reality tours. Freire-Medeiros (2007) states that places like Indian slums, war fields in Cambodia, New York’s Ground Zero and favelas, although so different from each other, have one thing in common: the capacity of causing emotions that are so intense and extreme that they go beyond contem- plation, characterizing the bases of authenticity and self-realization. For analysis purposes, the author divides reality tours in two types: social tours and dark tours (Freire-Medeiros, 2009), observing that in the empirical ground, the boundaries between both of them are far from clear. In this context, “Social tours sell partici- pation and authenticity through trips that aim to be a counterpoint to the destruc- tive vocation of mass tourism. Their privileged destinations are economically challenged places, forming a sub-field of reality tourism eloquently labelled as pro- poor tourism or pity tourism” (Freire-Medeiros, 2009 p. 5). It is important to highlight that, although this sub-field of reality tourism may be labelled as pro-poor tourism, the latter represents a broader approach to tourism development, aiming to enhance linkages between tourism and poverty reduction, and rather than being limited to a specific product or segment, can be applied to any type of tourism, including resort based models, as long as the whole supply chain is planned in such a way to prioritize the benefits to the poor over the growth of the activity itself (Ashley & Haysom, 2006; Ashley & Roe, 2002; Bowden, 2005; Hill, Nel, & Trotter, 2006). Therefore, social tours can be understood as a sub- field of reality tourism that is more likely to incorporate a pro-poor approach, which however is not limited to this type of activity. Empirically backing the char- acterization of slum tours as social tours, tourists interviewed by Freire-Medeiros (2011) stated their concern with the investment of the tours’ profits in the com- munity, and some even showed to be disappointed by the fact that a too small part of those profits were employed for the sake of the locals. In the other extreme of the continuum are dark tours. As first conceptualized by Foley & Lennon (1996) dark tourism designates “phenomena which encompass the presentation and consumption (by visitors) of real and commodified death and return to the content page 159