Cinema, Destination Image and Place Branding Cinema, Destination Image & Place Branding - Page 157

FILM-INDUCED SLUM TOURISM: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND MODEL PROPOSAL by the other. The model proposed by the present work builds on this connection, suggesting a framework that encompasses the main factors involved on the process of tourist attraction to slums through films. The proposed model Besides acknowledging that controversial films can also improve visit inten- tions, the mentioned work of Shani et al. (2009) also provides relevant conclusions on the role of specific film factors on those intentions. The authors built on Macio- nis’ (2004) list of elements through which films attract viewers to the portrayed locations: place, performance and personality, to test the importance attributed by viewers to a list of eight film factors in shaping their visit intentions to the place, where each set of two to three factors represented one of Macionis’ (2004) ele- ments. This approach allowed the authors to extend Riley and Van Doren’s (1992) conclusions about the importance of landscape qualities in motivating film tourists to the case of controversial films, as landscapes was the film factor to which most participants associated the increase in their desire to visit the portrayed destination. Those results were also reinforced by the study of Loureiro & de Araújo (2015), in which the landscapes were the film element that most explained positive changes of respondents regarding Brazil after watching City of God. Once more, the result is particularly relevant to the study of films’ effects in the context of slum tourism because the examined film is shot and set in a favela. Based on those results, the list of film factors adopted in both studies is the first set of variables considered composing the theoretical model proposed here. The list consists in the following elements, by order of relevance in the last mentioned study: land- scapes, actors, adventure, cultural attractions, storyline, experience, scenery and characters, which were incorporated in the proposed model. The study carried out by Hudson et al. (2011) also examined the effects of Motorcycle Diaries, and in addition to measuring its role on destination image and visit intentions, undertook a cross-cultural comparison of such effects in viewers from three different countries. The results suggest that in the case of controversial films, the highest the cultural distance between viewers and the depicted destina- tion, the stronger the attraction of the formers towards the latter. Based on those results, perceived cultural proximity was also considered on the proposed model. Regarding films’ contributions to visit decisions, there is a historical tendency in film tourism studies of making a binary classification of visitors into film tourists return to the content page 157