Cinema, Destination Image and Place Branding Cinema, Destination Image & Place Branding - Page 154

CINEMA, DESTINATION IMAGE & PLACE BRANDING by George & Booyens (2014) in the specific case of townships; and Dyson (2012) and Meschkank (2011), in the case of Indian slums. According to Rolfes (2009) this positive change occurs because the tours offer alternative (to poverty) observational schemes. Those schemes can be culture, economization or even drug trafficking and parallel power of the organized crime, depending on the context. Therefore, although poverty is still part of the obser- vational scheme, it is not the focus of the tour, which is why the author argues that the term poverty tourism is not adequate to describe such activities, and proposes the term slumming. On the present study, however, the term slum tourism is favoured, as it more clearly and exclusively describes the act of visiting slums by tourists (while in touristic trips). Meanwhile the term slumming is also applicable to the act of visiting the poor areas of one’s own town, which, as explained by Steinbrink (2012), are much older than the global phenomenon of slum tourism in the Global south as known today, dating back to Victorian England and being popularized in Twentieth century New York. In sum, poverty to ΥΙ₯Ν΄₯́΅½Ι”½™Ρ•Έ)ΥΝ•‰δΝΡΙ…₯‘ЁΙ₯Ρ₯Μ°™½Θ₯΅Α±ε₯ΉœΡ‘…ЁΑ½Ω•ΙΡδ₯́ё”•ΉΡΙ…°½‰Ν•ΙΩ…Ρ₯½Ή…°)͍‘•΅”½˜Ρ½ΥΙΜ°έ‘₯ ΅…­•ΜΡ‘•΄„Ω½ε•ΥΙ₯ΝΡ₯Œ…Ή•αΑ±½₯Ρ…Ρ₯Ω”…Ρ₯Ω₯Ρδμέ‘₯±”)Ν±Υ΄Ρ½ΥΙ₯Ν΄…±±½έ́…Έ₯΅Α…ΙΡ₯…°½‰Ν•ΙΩ…Ρ₯½Ή…°Α½Ν₯Ρ₯½Έ½ΈΡ‘”Α‘•Ή½΅•Ή½Έ°΅½Ι”)…‘•ΕΥ…Ρ”ΡΌ„Ν₯•ΉΡ₯™₯Œ₯ΉΩ•ΝΡ₯…Ρ₯½ΈΈ)Q‘”½ΉΉ•Ρ₯½Έ‰•Ρέ••ΈΡ‘”ΡέΌΑ‘•Ή½΅•Ή„)QεΑ₯…±±δ°™₯±΄Ρ½ΥΙ₯Ν΄ΝΡΥ‘₯•Μ™½Ύ½ΈΡ‘”•™™•Ρ́½˜…Υ‘₯Ό΅Ω₯ΝΥ…°ΑΙ½‘ՍΡ́ё…Π)Ν‘½έ…Ν”‰•…ΥΡ₯™Υ°±…Ή‘͍…Α•Μ…ΉΥ±ΡΥΙ…°…ΝΑ•Ρ́½˜Ρ‘”‘•Α₯Ρ•‘•ΝΡ₯Ή…Ρ₯½ΉΜ°)‘₯‘±₯‘Ρ₯Ήœ½½•αΑ•Ι₯•Ή•Μ½˜‘…Ι…Ρ•Ί…ΝΝ½₯…Ρ•έ₯Ρ Ρ‘”Α±…”°½™Ρ•Έ₯Έ„)ΡΙ…Ω•°½ΉΡ•αΠΈQ‘”™₯ΙΝЁΝΡΥ‘δΡΌ½ΙΙ½‰½Ι…Ρ”•™™•Ρ́½Έ„™•…ΡΥΙ”™₯±΄½ΈΡΙ…Ω•°‘•€΄)Ν₯½ΉΜ€‘%΄€˜ ‘½Έ°€Θΐΐΰ€…‘½ΑΡ•„±…ΝΝ₯Œ΅½Ρ₯½ΈΑ₯ΡΥΙ”₯Έέ‘₯ ‰•…ΥΡ₯™Υ°±…Ή΄)͍…Α•Μ…Ι”…Έ₯΅Α½ΙΡ…ΉΠ…ΝΑ•Π½˜₯Ρ́…ΑΑ•…°€‘M½ΥΉ½˜΅ΥΝ₯Œ€Έ₯±΅Μ…‰½ΥЁΡΙ…Ω•°)•αΑ•Ι₯•Ή•Μ…Ι”…±ΝΌ„½΅΅½ΈΑ±…”ΈQ‘”™₯ΙΝЁΝΡΥ‘δΡΌ½ΙΙ½‰½Ι…Ρ”™₯±΅ΟŠdΑ½Ρ•ΉΡ₯…°)ΡΌ₯Ή™±Υ•Ή”‘•ΝΡ₯Ή…Ρ₯½Έ₯΅…”€‘-₯΄€˜I₯‘…Ι‘Ν½Έ°€ΘΐΐΜ€…‘½ΑΡ• •™½Ι”MΥΉΙ₯Ν”₯Έ)Ρ‘•₯ȁ•αΑ•Ι₯΅•ΉΠ°„™₯±΄…‰½ΥЁΡέΌε½ΥΉœ…‘Ω•ΉΡΥΙ½ΎΡΙ…Ω•±±•ΊݑΌ΅••Π₯Έ„ΡΙ…₯Έ)…Ή™…±°₯Έ±½Ω”έ‘₯±”•αΑ±½Ι₯ΉœY₯•ΉΉ„Ρ½•Ρ‘•ΘΈQ‘”ΝΡՑ䰁ё…Ё…­Ή½έ±•‘•Ρ‘”)Ι½±”½˜‘•ΝΡ₯Ή…Ρ₯½Έ₯΅…”…́„΅•‘₯…Ρ₯ΉœΩ…Ι₯…‰±”½ΈΡ‘”ΑΙ½•Ν́½˜Ω₯Ν₯Ё₯ΉΡ•ΉΡ₯½Έ)•Ή•Ι…Ρ₯½ΈΡ‘ɽ՝ ™₯±΅Μ€‘!…‘΄€˜]…Ήœ°€ΘΐΔΔ€°•α…΅₯Ή•…Ή½Ρ‘•ΘΡΙ…Ω•°Ρ‘•΅•)…ΉΑ±…”½Ι₯•ΉΡ•™₯±΄έ₯Ρ Ν½΅”½˜Ρ‘”Ν…΅”Ι½΅…ΉΡ₯Œ…ΝΑ•ΡΜθ1½ΝЁ₯ΈQΙ…ΉΝ±…Ρ₯½Έ°)₯Έέ‘₯ „΅…Έ…Ή„έ½΅…Έ…±ΝΌ™…±°₯Έ±½Ω”έ₯Ρ •… ½Ρ‘•Θ‘ΥΙ₯ΉœΡ‘•₯ȁΡΙ₯ΐΈ(ΔΤΠ)Ι•ΡΥΙΈΡΌΡ‘”½ΉΡ•ΉΠΑ…