Cinema, Destination Image and Place Branding Cinema, Destination Image & Place Branding - Page 129

The English section of this Proceedings Book starts with the study presented by Karen Nishioka, from Kyoto University, which addresses the role of American teen films in the adolescence period, understood as a transitional space between childhood and adulthood. Nishioka’s analytical framework leans on the notion of “psychological moratorium”, proposed by Erik Erikson to describe the period of life when a person takes a break from “real life” to actively search for his/her identity. According to Erikson, it is a period of time during which the individual, through free role experimentation, tries to find his/her niche in any section of society, a niche which is not clearly defined and yet seems to be tailor-made. During this psycho- logical moratorium, one has the opportunity to try on multiple identities and/or roles before firmly committing to one. The psychological moratorium is similar to the anthropological concept of liminal experience that takes place in the ritual of passage. Such kind of liminal experiences are designated by Nishioka as utopian spaces, and cinema is an efficient media to create such utopian spaces. Moreover, one of the most distinctive privilege s of cinema is to make the complex reality of life tangible and to allow visualizing the most abstract concepts. A teenager does not become an adult overnight, or after summer vacations, but teen films are able to compress this long process of becoming an adult (in a film it lasts more or less two hours) and making it visually tangible. The author illustrates these existential dynamics of visualizing the utopian place focusing on three films: Stand By Me (1986), American Graffiti (1973), and The Wizard of Oz (1939). At the end of her analysis the author suggests that American teen films give many hints to under- stand tourist motivation. In fact, many students take a graduation-trip when they graduate from high school or college. For those who can endeavor such a journey before getting a job, it’s a life-time opportunity to stage a utopian space that teen films succeed to frame in their teenager mind. The sixth chapter, authored by Araújo et al., presents a systematic review on the phenomena of film tourism and slum tourism and proposes a theoretical model encompassing the main variables associated with slum tourism motivations through films. The study starts with a detailed literature review of the so-called film tourism studies, identifying two main approaches: the theoretical-oriented and the empirical-oriented. A great number of these studies are focused in measuring the return to the content page 129