Biotech 2nd Edition Sample Ch. 4 Biotechnology Sample Ch. 4

4 and Analysis DNA Isolation As a Manufacturing Technician at Fluidigm, Corp. Suman Dasgupta uses photolithography to manufacture the “molds,” or silicon wafers, that are an integral part of Fluidigm’s microfluid array chips. The arrays are used to study DNA, RNA, gene products, gene expression, and genetic diversity and have applications in personalized medicine and in wildlife conservation. Suman is “gowned up” to protect the array chips from contamination. Learn more about Fluidigm’s new technologies at Photo by author. It has been said of the biotechnology industry that, “DNA is the flash, and proteins are the cash.” This is because isolating and modifying deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules use some of the newest scientific technologies. By utilizing the new techniques, companies are able to manufacture and market hundreds of new protein products. In the following lab activities, you will learn some of the techniques used to grow specific cell lines. Working with bacterial cell cultures, you will learn how to isolate and analyze DNA from the cells. Some of the new lab techniques in this chapter include the following: • sterile technique • growing cells, also called “cell culture” • cell culture media preparation (media prep) • Gram stain analysis • bursting cells open, or “cell lysis” • separation, or precipitation, of genomic DNA • DNA analysis by horizontal gel electrophoresis These are introductory DNA laboratory procedures. In later chapters, you will learn how to introduce foreign DNA into cells to modify their characteristics. This is called genetic engineering, the technology that revolutionized science in the 1970s. Another revolutionary technology that will be discussed later is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a method to make billions of copies of short sections or DNA for research and diagnostics. 66 Chapter 4   Laboratory Manual