ASH Clinical News ACN_5.1_Digital - Page 16

LEFT Spread: Trim: 20.5"w × 13"h Live: 19"w × 12.5"h (includes gutter .5 each side from center) Page: Trim: 10.25"w × 13"h Live: 9.5"w × 12.5"h Output @ 100% Giant Creative Strategy KYPROLIS ® (carfilzomib) for injection, for intravenous use Brief Summary of Prescribing Information. Please see the KYPROLIS package insert for full prescribing information. INDICATIONS AND USAGE • Kyprolis is indicated in combination with dexamethasone or with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who have received one to three lines of therapy. WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS Cardiac Toxicities New onset or worsening of pre-existing cardiac failure (e.g., congestive heart failure, pulmonary edema, decreased ejection fraction), restrictive cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia, and myocardial infarction including fatalities have occurred following administration of Kyprolis. Some events occurred in patients with normal baseline ventricular function. In clinical studies with Kyprolis, these events occurred throughout the course of Kyprolis therapy. Death due to cardiac arrest has occurred within one day of Kyprolis administration. In randomized, open-label, multicenter trials for combination therapies, the incidence of cardiac failure events was 8%. Monitor patients for clinical signs or symptoms of cardiac failure or cardiac ischemia. Evaluate promptly if cardiac toxicity is suspected. Withhold Kyprolis for Grade 3 or 4 cardiac adverse events until recovery, and consider whether to restart Kyprolis at 1 dose level reduction based on a benefit/risk assessment. While adequate hydration is required prior to each dose in Cycle 1, all patients should also be monitored for evidence of volume overload, especially patients at risk for cardiac failure. Adjust total fluid intake as clinically appropriate in patients with baseline cardiac failure or who are at risk for cardiac failure. In patients ≥ 75 years of age, the risk of cardiac failure is increased compared to patients < 75 years of age. Patients with New York Heart Association Class III and IV heart failure, recent myocardial infarction, conduction abnormalities, angina, or arrhythmias uncontrolled by medications were not eligible for the clinical trials. These patients may be at greater risk for cardiac complications and should have a comprehensive medical assessment (including blood pressure control and fluid management) prior to starting treatment with Kyprolis and remain under close follow-up. Acute Renal Failure Cases of acute renal failure have occurred in patients receiving Kyprolis. Some of these events have been fatal. Renal insufficiency adverse events (including renal failure) have occurred in approximately 11% of patients treated with Kyprolis. Acute renal failure was reported more frequently in patients with advanced relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma who received Kyprolis monotherapy. The risk of fatal renal failure risk was greater in patients with a baseline reduced estimated creatinine clearance (calculated using Cockcroft and Gault equation). Monitor renal function with regular measurement of the serum creatinine and/or estimated creatinine clearance. Reduce or withhold dose as appropriate. Tumor Lysis Syndrome Cases of tumor lysis syndrome (TLS), including fatal outcomes, have been reported in patients who received Kyprolis. Patients with multiple myeloma and a high tumor burden should be considered to be at greater risk for TLS. Ensure that patients are well hydrated before administration of Kyprolis in Cycle 1, and in subsequent cycles as needed. Consider uric acid-lowering drugs in patients at risk for TLS. Monitor for evidence of TLS during treatment and manage promptly, including interruption of Kyprolis until TLS is resolved. Pulmonary Toxicity Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), acute respiratory failure, and acute diffuse infiltrative pulmonary disease such as pneumonitis and interstitial lung disease have occurred in approximately 1% of patients receiving Kyprolis. Some events have been fatal. In the event of drug-induced pulmonary toxicity, discontinue Kyprolis. Pulmonary Hypertension Pulmonary arterial hypertension was reported in approximately 1% of patients treated with Kyprolis and was Grade 3 or greater in less than 1% of patients. Evaluate with cardiac imaging and/or other tests as indicated. Withhold Kyprolis for pulmonary hypertension until resolved or returned to baseline, and consider whether to restart Kyprolis based on a benefit/risk assessment. Dyspnea Dyspnea was reported in 28% of patients treated with Kyprolis and was Grade 3 or greater in 4% of patients. Evaluate dyspnea to exclude cardiopulmonary conditions including cardiac failure and pulmonary syndromes. Stop Kyprolis for Grade 3 or 4 dyspnea until resolved or returned to baseline. Consider whether to restart Kyprolis based on a benefit/risk assessment. Hypertension Hypertension, including hypertensive crisis and hypertensive emergency, has been observed with Kyprolis. In a randomized, open-label, multicenter trial evaluating KRd versus Rd, the incidence of hypertension events was 17% in the KRd arm versus 9% in the Rd arm. In a randomized, open-label, multicenter trial of Kd versus Vd, the incidence of hypertension events was 34% in the Kd arm versus 11% in the Vd arm. Some of these events have been fatal. It is recommended to control hypertension prior to starting Kyprolis. Monitor blood pressure regularly in all patients while on Kyprolis. If hypertension cannot be adequately controlled, withhold Kyprolis and evaluate. Consider whether to restart Kyprolis based on a benefit/risk assessment. Venous Thrombosis Venous thromboembolic events (including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) have been observed with Kyprolis. In a randomized, open-label, multicenter trial evaluating KRd versus Rd (with thromboprophylaxis used in both arms), the incidence of venous thromboembolic events in the first 12 cycles was 13% in the KRd arm versus 6% in the Rd arm. In a randomized, open-label, multicenter trial of Kd versus Vd, the incidence of venous thromboembolic events in months 1–6 was 9% in the Kd arm versus 2% in the Vd arm. With Kyprolis monotherapy, the incidence of venous thromboembolic events was 2%. Thromboprophylaxis is recommended for patients being treated with the combination of Kyprolis with dexamethasone or with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone. The thromboprophylaxis regimen should be based on an assessment of the patient’s underlying risks. Patients using oral contraceptives or a hormonal method of contraception associated with a risk of thrombosis should consider an alternative method of effective contraception during treatment with Kyprolis in combination with dexamethasone or lenalidomide plus dexamethasone. Infusion Reactions Infusion reactions, including life-threatening reactions, have occurred in patients receiving Kyprolis. Symptoms include fever, chills, arthralgia, myalgia, facial flushing, facial edema, vomiting, weakness, shortness of breath, hypotension, syncope, chest tightness, or angina. These reactions can occur immediately following or up to 24 hours after administration of Kyprolis. Administer dexamethasone prior to Kyprolis to reduce the incidence and severity of infusion reactions. Inform patients of the risk and of symptoms and to contact a physician immediately if symptoms of an infusion reaction occur. Hemorrhage Fatal or serious cases of hemorrhage have been reported in patients treated with Kyprolis. Hemorrhagic events have included gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and intracranial hemorrhage and epistaxis. The bleeding can be spontaneous, and intracranial hemorrhage has occurred without trauma. Hemorrhage has been reported in patients having either low or normal platelet counts. Hemorrhage has also been reported in patients who were not on antiplatelet therapy or anticoagulation. Promptly evaluate signs and symptoms of blood loss. Reduce or withhold dose as appropriate. Thrombocytopenia Kyprolis causes thrombocytopenia with platelet nadirs observed between Day 8 and Day 15 of each 28-day cycle, with recovery to baseline platelet count usually by the start of the next cycle. Thrombocytopenia was reported in approximately 32% of patients in clinical trials with Kyprolis. Monitor platelet counts frequently during treatment with Kyprolis. Reduce or withhold dose as appropriate. Hemorrhage may occur. Hepatic Toxicity and Hepatic Failure Cases of hepatic failure, including fatal cases, have been reported (< 1%) during treatment with Kyprolis. Kyprolis can cause increased serum transaminases. Monitor liver enzymes regularly, regardless of baseline values. Reduce or withhold dose as appropriate. Thrombotic Microangiopathy Cases of thrombotic microangiopathy, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome (TTP/HUS), have been reported in patients who received Kyprolis. Some of these events have been fatal. Monitor for signs and symptoms of TTP/HUS. If the diagnosis is suspected, stop Kyprolis and evaluate. If the diagnosis of TTP/HUS is excluded, Kyprolis may be restarted. The safety of reinitiating Kyprolis therapy in patients previously experiencing TTP/HUS is not known. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome Cases of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) have been reported in patients receiving Kyprolis. PRES, formerly termed Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS), is a neurological disorder which can present with seizure, headache, lethargy, confusion, blindness, altered consciousness, and other visual and neurological disturbances, along with hypertension, and the diagnosis is confirmed by neuro-radiological imaging (MRI). Discontinue Kyprolis if PRES is suspected and evaluate. The safety of reinitiating Kyprolis therapy in patients previously experiencing PRES is not known. Increased Fatal and Serious Toxicities in Combination with Melphalan and Prednisone in Newly Diagnosed Transplant‑Ineligible Patients In a clinical trial of 955 transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma randomized to Kyprolis (20/36 mg/m 2 by 30-minute infusion twice weekly for four of each six-week cycle), melphalan, and prednisone (KMP) or bortezomib, melphalan, and prednisone (VMP), a higher incidence of fatal adverse reactions (7% versus 4%) and serious adverse reactions (50% versus 42%) were observed in the KMP arm compared to patients in the VMP arm, respectively. Patients in the KMP arm were observed to have a higher incidence of any grade adverse reactions involving cardiac failure (11% versus 4%), hypertension (25% versus 8%), acute renal failure (14% versus 6%), and dyspnea (18% versus 9%). This study did not meet its primary outcome measure of superiority in progression-free survival (PFS) for the KMP arm. Kyprolis in combination with melphalan and prednisone is not indicated for transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Embryo‑Fetal Toxicity Based on the mechanism of action and findings in animals, Kyprolis can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Carfilzomib administered intravenously to pregnant rabbits during organogenesis at a dose approximately 40% of the clinical dose of 27 mg/m 2 based on body surface area caused post-implantation loss and a decrease in fetal weight. Females of reproductive potential should avoid becoming pregnant while being treated with Kyprolis. Advise females of reproductive potential that they must use contraception during treatment with Kyprolis and for 6 months following the final dose. Advise males with female sexual partners of reproductive potential that they must use contraception during treatment with Kyprolis and for 3 months following the final dose. If Kyprolis is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant during Kyprolis treatment, the patient should be apprised of the potential risk to the fetus. ADVERSE REACTIONS The following adverse reactions have been discussed above and can be found in the Warnings and Precautions section of the prescribing information. They include Cardiac Toxicities, Acute Renal Failure, TLS, Pulmonary Toxicity, Pulmonary Hypertension, Dyspnea, Hypertension, Venous Thrombosis, Infusion Reactions, Hemorrhage, Thrombocytopenia, Hepatic Toxicity and Hepatic Failure, Thrombotic Microangiopathy, PRES, and Increased Fatal and Serious Toxicities in Combination with Melphalan and Prednisone in Newly Diagnosed Transplant-Ineligible Patients. Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared with rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in medical practice. Safety Experience with Kyprolis in Combination with Lenalidomide and Dexamethasone in Patients with Multiple Myeloma The safety of Kyprolis in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (KRd) was evaluated in an open-label randomized study in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma. The median number of cycles initiated was 22 cycles for the KRd arm and 14 cycles for the Rd arm. Deaths due to adverse reactions within 30 days of the last dose of any therapy in the KRd arm occurred in 45/392 (12%) patients compared with 42/389 (11%) patients who died due to adverse reactions within 30 days of the last dose of any Rd therapy. The most common cause of deaths occurring in patients (%) in the two arms (KRd versus Rd) included infection 12 (3%) versus 11 (3%), cardiac 10 (3%) versus 9 (2%), and other adverse reactions 23 (6%) versus 22 (6%). Serious adverse reactions were reported in 65% of the patients in the KRd arm and 57% of the patients in the Rd arm. The most common serious adverse reactions reported in the KRd arm as compared with the Rd arm were pneumonia (17% vs. 13%), respiratory tract infection (4% vs. 2%), pyrexia (4% vs. 3%), and pulmonary embolism (3% vs. 2%). In patients treated with Kyprolis, 47% were 65 and over and 11% were 75 years and over. The incidence of serious adverse events was 57% in patients < 65 years of age, 73% in patients 65 to 74 years of age, and 81% in patients ≥ 75 years of age. Discontinuation due to any adverse reaction occurred in 33% in the KRd arm versus 30% in the Rd arm. Adverse reactions leading to discontinuation of Kyprolis occurred in 12% of patients and the most common reactions included pneumonia (1%), myocardial infarction (0.8%), and upper respiratory tract infection (0.8%). The incidence of cardiac failure events was 7% in the KRd arm versus 4% in the Rd arm.