Arts & International Affairs: Volume 3, Issue 1, Spring 2018 - Page 68

ARTS & INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS of nationalism is not necessarily static nor does it always coincide with national borders. Even though JYP Entertainment was respected and played an important role in an indus- try that has elicited national pride by creating the hallyu phenomenon, the South Korean people aligned with the people of Taiwan in condemning the company. Popular culture creates a third space where people connect to others beyond national boundaries, tran- scending the binary relationship between culture industry and its consumers. Ironically, the very process of popular culture that triggers South Korean people to cross the line of conventional hallyu nationalism, at the same time, accompanies another mode of nationalistic sentiments whereby boundaries elsewhere are demarcated. The visual images of flag and the texts of the apology video reminded Korean netizens of their colonial past to develop connectedness with a Taiwanese K-pop star and Taiwanese people. The sensibility of sadness stemming from shared experiences of historical colo- nization serves as a powerful driving force that connects people across borders ( J. Lee 2017:180). Korean netizens’ nationalistic memory operated to drive them to transcend hallyu nationalism as a contradictory process. The ways in which a sense of national consciousness was evoked can be seen in the re- lationship between Taiwan and China and between South Korea and Japan, thereby in- scribing borders. Such an inscription of boundaries, however, is neither permanent nor static. Flows of culture and people continue to come and go across borders in multi-direc- tional ways, making borders ever-changing. As of January 2017, Koreans visiting Japan hit a record high (D. Lee 2017). Twice made their debut in Japan by holding their first showcase held at the Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium on 2 July 2017, attracting 15,000 fans. Their Japan debut album released on 28 June 2017 before this showcase topped the Japanese iTunes albums chart (Yoon 2017). Also, although Taiwanese national identity is becoming more consolidated, people in Taiwan are “open-minded about how to inter- act with China socially and economically” (Lin 2016: 31), indicating ongoing openness in forging relations with China (Lin 2016:214–215). In addition, while JYP Entertain- ment was condemned by the Chinese public, the company signed a contract in February 2016 with China Music Corporation, China’s online music giant, to distribute digital music exclusively, intended to step up mutual relations between these two companies and between JYP Entertainment and Chinese audiences (Park 2016). Conclusion The meaning of culture includes “contradictory forms of ‘common sense’” (Hall 1996:439). Culture consists of “potentially contested codes and representations” (Wel- des 1999:118). In effect, popular culture entails contradictory processes of crossing and delimiting borders. The Tzuyu Incident epitomizes such contradictions. Its complex and contradictory roles construct and reconstruct people’s relations with others in their everyday lives. By evoking historical sensibilities and emotions, popular culture makes borders delimited and loosened at the same time. 68