Arctic Yearbook 2015 - Page 73

73 Arctic Yearbook 2015 the Act transferred 40 million acres of land to Alaska Natives, and provided nearly one billion dollars as part of the settlement (Hirschfield 1992). Table 2: Regional Heterogeneity under ANCSA (1970) High Regional Heterogeneity Alaska Native Population % Indian 39.1 20.8 81.7 || 0.4 0.4 0.2 Twelve ANCSA Regions 1. Cook Inlet Native Association 2. Chugach Native Association 3. Tanana Chiefs Conference || 10. Bering Strait Native Association 11. Arctic Slope Native Association 12. Northwest Alaska Native Association % Inuit 60.9 79.2 18.3 || 99.6 99.6 99.8 Low Regional Heterogeneity Within this system that otherwise created weak regional governance and strong local governance, Alaska’s two northern-most regions (Northwest and North Slope) have developed a unique model. Like most of the other regions, the regional Alaska Native Corporations worked to solidify the mandate of a profit-based corporation, while the regional Non-Profit Native Associations (which had been key participants in AFN and thus in ANCSA negotiations) reorganized into regional non-profit corporations in order to access federal funds and to manage regional health and social services. However, the Northwest and North Slope regions went further, and worked to establish a third regional institution through the creation of borough government.8 The creation of borough governments—which are regional public governments—introduced an “as-close-as-possible” version of Indigenous regional self-government in these two regions. Within the two regions, the regional Alaska native corporation, the non-profit native association, and the borough government have coordinated a stronger form of regionalism in the Alaskan north (though with some important caveats on whom each of the institutions provide services to): Table 3: Institutional Development & Regionalization after ANCSA Alaska Native Non-Profit Corporation Associations Chugach Alaska Calista Corp. Bristol Bay Doyon, Ltd. Bering Straits Aleut Corp. Sealaska Koniag, Inc. Ahtna Inc. Cook Inlet NANA Arctic Slope Davidson Native Regional Borough Village Tribal Regionalization Government Gov’ts -Association of Village Council Presidents Bristol Bay Native Ass’c Tanana Chiefs Conference Kawerak, Inc. Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Central Council Tlingit & Haida Indian Tribes Kodiak Area Native Ass’c Copper River Native Ass’c Cook Inlet Tribal Council Maniilaq Arctic Slope Native Ass’c -- 6 Weak -- 56 Weak ----- 32 32 18 15 Weak Weak Weak Weak -- 10 Weak ---Northwest Arctic Borough North Slope Borough 9 8 8 Weak Weak Weak Medium (ad hoc) Medium (ad hoc) 11 8