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260 Arctic Yearbook 2015 cooperation when the US withdrew its support to the A5 in 2011, after Barack Obama succeeded George W. Bush as president and Hillary Clinton was appointed as secretary of state. The debates about the Arctic Five, however, again renewed, when five Arctic littoral states signed the moratorium on unregulated fishing in the central Arctic Ocean in July 2015. References Arctic Council. (1998). Arctic Council Rules of Procedure (as adopted by the Arctic Council at the first Arctic Council Ministerial meeting, Iqaluit, Canada, 17–18 September 1998), 1–11. Arctic Council. (2011). Nuuk Declaration on the occassion of the Seventh Ministerial Meeting of the Arctic Council. 12 May 2011, Nuuk, Greenland. Arctic Council. Terms of Reference of the Arctic Council Secretariat. DMM 02-15 May 2012, Stockholm, Sweden. (2012). Arctic Council. Arctic Council Rules of Procedure. Revised by the Arctic Council at the Eight Arctic Council Ministerial Meeting, Kiruna, Sweden, May 15, 2013 (2013). Arctic Council. Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy. Declaration on the protection of Arctic environment (1991). Rovaniemi, Finland. Blavoukos, S., Tsakonas, P., & Bourantonis, D. (2006). Parameters of the Chairmanship’s Effectiveness: The Case of the UN Security Council. The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 1(2), 143– 170. doi:10.1163/187119006X149535 Bloom, E. (1999). Establishment of the Arctic Council. American Journal of International Law, 93(3), 712–722. Canadian Arctic Resources Committee. (1991). Arctic Council. Canada prepares for a new era in circumpolar relations. Northern Perspectives, 19(2), 1–24. Declaration on the Establishment of the Arctic Council. (1996). Ottawa, Canada. English, J. (2013). Ice and Water. Politics, Peoples, and the Arctic Council. Toronto: Penguin Group. Exner-Pirot, H. (2011). Canadian leadership in the circumpolar world: An agenda for the Arctic Council Chairmanship 2013-2015. Northern Review, 33(Spring 2011), 7–27. Fenge, T. (2013). The Arctic Council: Past, Present, and Future Prospects with Canada in the Chair from 2013 to 2015. The Northern Review, 37(Fall 2013), 7–35. Fenge, T., & Funston, B. (2015). The Practice and Promise of the Arctic Council. Independent report commissioned by Greenpeace. Graczyk, P. (2011). Observers in the Arctic Council - Evolution and Prospects. Yearbook of Polar Law, 3, 575–633. Role of the Arctic Council Chairmanship