Arctic Yearbook 2015 - Page 238

238 Arctic Yearbook 2015 waste. Conversely, if policymakers delay spending until traffic has increased to a level that demands enhanced response capacity, there is a chance that the spending will come too late—that a large-scale human or environmental disaster will occur, and the responsible government will be perceived to have failed. This dilemma can be described in terms of two hypothetical scenarios involving the Crystal Serenity. In the first case, the US