Arctic Yearbook 2015 - Page 226

226 Arctic Yearbook 2015 agreement signed under the auspices of the Arctic Council, offers a useful framework for coordinated response to oil spill; but in addition to not being enforceable, it does not place many duties on the parties. Even so, the Arctic Council plays an important role in discourse-shaping and in the promotion of values and standards of best practices. Second, when it comes to national and regional levels, two main features have been highlighted. First: the entanglement of indigenous and public rights and authority. Both governments in Greenland and Nunavut are public, but very diverse settings are in place. Nevertheless, in both cases devolution happens to be implemented at the expense of the local level. The entanglement of indigenous and public rights and authority constitutes a source of tension in political relations, observed both in Nunavut and in Greenland, and it also generates inefficient processes of decision-making resulting in high court costs for Nunavut. Third, as far as non-governmental actors are concerned, the WWF and the ICC, through their respective statuses in the Arctic Council, have the opportunity to play a constructive role in raising awareness on important issues and producing scientific reports. As for corporations, they play a crucial role in the governance of offshore hydrocarbon activities, especially when the goal setting approach is favoured in the regulation, thereby raising the issue of corporate social responsibility. In this context, regulatory and advisory agencies enjoy very different degrees of leverages. In both cases regulation is not the be all and end all, and the issue of enforcement remains central as activities take place in remote areas lacking infrastructure (for instance the disposal of drilling wastes